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Effects of secondary breakup, collision dynamics, gravity and evaporation on droplet size distribution in a pressure-swirl JET A-1 spray

Jedelský, J and Malý, M and Vankeswaram, SK and Zaremba, M and Kardos, R and Csemány, D and �ervenec, A and Józsa, V (2024) Effects of secondary breakup, collision dynamics, gravity and evaporation on droplet size distribution in a pressure-swirl JET A-1 spray. In: Fuel, 359 .

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.fuel.2023.130103


Size and velocity of droplets in pressure-swirl sprays vary with distance downstream the nozzle. This study aims to explain the phenomena contributing to size-resolved spatial variation of the drop size distribution for Jet A-1 spray from a small pressure swirl atomizer injected into quiescent ambient air at atmospheric conditions. The effects of secondary breakup, droplet collisions, gravity, drag-driven spray dispersion, and evaporation are evaluated. Phase Doppler anemometer (PDA) was used to resolve the velocity and size of the droplets in radial profiles at several axial distances (Z) from the nozzle exit at injection pressures between 0.5 and 1.5 MPa. The droplet motion and collision dynamics were qualitatively characterised by high-speed imaging. The analysis focused on areas along 1) the spray axis and 2) the liquid sheet direction. The first area covers small droplets with marginal evolution, while the mean drop size in the second area significantly increases downstream. The local drop size distribution and its axial evolution results from a combined effect of ballistic filtering (drifting of small droplets from periphery to spray centre and large droplets vice versa), centrifugal and turbulent droplet dispersion, and droplet collisions (increasing drop size with distance). The relative droplet-gas velocity was found at investigated Z positions too small for drag-driven secondary droplet breakup to occur. Evaporation of Jet A-1 sprayed at room temperature and pressure into still atmosphere reduces the drop size marginally. Trajectory of all drop sizes is insignificantly altered by gravity. The smallest droplets are strongly drag-driven to the spray axis, while large ones disperse centrifugally and have sufficient momentum to neglect the gravity. Combining results from imaging and laser diagnostics, various collision outcomes were identified, with a conclusion that these depend on the size and velocity of colliding droplets. Coalescing collisions dominate and strongly increase the mean drop size downstream the spray at off-axis positions while insignificantly contribute along the spray axis. The drop size span factor reduces with Z as separative collisions between large droplets and mixed-type collisions between small and large droplets narrow the drop size distribution. The above effects can be most easily amplified for drop size reduction via modification of physical properties of sprayed liquid by its heating. © 2023 Elsevier Ltd

Item Type: Journal Article
Publication: Fuel
Publisher: Elsevier Ltd
Additional Information: The copyright for this article belongs to author
Keywords: Drop breakup; Laser diagnostics; Size distribution; Spray nozzles, Air-droplet interaction; Down-stream; Drop size; Drop size distribution; Droplet collision; Droplet interaction; Jet A-1; Pressure-swirl; Secondary breakup; Spray, Drag
Department/Centre: Division of Mechanical Sciences > Materials Engineering (formerly Metallurgy)
Date Deposited: 18 Mar 2024 05:04
Last Modified: 18 Mar 2024 05:04
URI: https://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/83895

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