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Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition)1

Klionsky, DJ and Abdel-Aziz, AK and Abdelfatah, S and Abdellatif, M and Abdoli, A and Abel, S and Abeliovich, H and Abildgaard, MH and Abudu, YP and Acevedo-Arozena, A and Adamopoulos, IE and Adeli, K and Adolph, TE and Adornetto, A and Aflaki, E and Agam, G and Agarwal, A and Aggarwal, BB and Agnello, M and Agostinis, P and Agrewala, JN and Agrotis, A and Aguilar, PV and Ahmad, ST and Ahmed, ZM and Ahumada-Castro, U and Aits, S and Aizawa, S and Akkoc, Y and Akoumianaki, T and Akpinar, HA and Al-Abd, AM and Al-Akra, L and Al-Gharaibeh, A and Alaoui-Jamali, MA and Alberti, S and Alcocer-Gómez, E and Alessandri, C and Ali, M and Alim Al-Bari, MA and Aliwaini, S and Alizadeh, J and Almacellas, E and Almasan, A and Alonso, A and Alonso, GD and Altan-Bonnet, N and Altieri, DC and Ã�lvarez, Ã�MC and Alves, S and Alves da Costa, C and Alzaharna, MM and Amadio, M and Amantini, C and Amaral, C and Ambrosio, S and Amer, AO and Ammanathan, V and An, Z and Andersen, SU and Andrabi, SA and Andrade-Silva, M and Andres, AM and Angelini, S and Ann, D and Anozie, UC and Ansari, MY and Antas, P and Antebi, A and Antón, Z and Anwar, T and Apetoh, L and Apostolova, N and Araki, T and Araki, Y and Arasaki, K and Araújo, WL and Araya, J and Arden, C and Arévalo, M-A and Arguelles, S and Arias, E and Arikkath, J and Arimoto, H and Ariosa, AR and Armstrong-James, D and Arnauné-Pelloquin, L and Aroca, A and Arroyo, DS and Arsov, I and Artero, R and Asaro, DML and Aschner, M and Ashrafizadeh, M and Ashur-Fabian, O and Atanasov, AG and Au, AK and Auberger, P and Auner, HW and Aurelian, L and Autelli, R and Avagliano, L and Ã�valos, Y and Aveic, S and Aveleira, CA and Avin-Wittenberg, T and Aydin, Y and Ayton, S and Ayyadevara, S and Azzopardi, M and Baba, M and Backer, JM and Backues, SK and Bae, D-H and Bae, O-N and Bae, SH and Baehrecke, EH and Baek, A and Baek, S-H and Baek, SH and Bagetta, G and Bagniewska-Zadworna, A and Bai, H and Bai, J and Bai, X and Bai, Y and Bairagi, N and Baksi, S and Balbi, T and Baldari, CT and Balduini, W and Ballabio, A and Ballester, M and Balazadeh, S and Balzan, R and Bandopadhyay, R and Banerjee, S and Banerjee, S and Bánréti, Ã� and Bao, Y and Baptista, MS and Baracca, A and Barbati, C and Bargiela, A and BarilÃ, D and Barlow, PG and Barmada, SJ and Barreiro, E and Barreto, GE and Bartek, J and Bartel, B and Bartolome, A and Barve, GR and Basagoudanavar, SH and Bassham, DC and Bast, Jr and Basu, A and Batoko, H and Batten, I and Baulieu, EE and Baumgarner, BL and Bayry, J and Beale, R and Beau, I and Beaumatin, F and Bechara, LRG and Beck, Jr and Beers, MF and Begun, J and Behrends, C and Behrens, GMN and Bei, R and Bejarano, E and Bel, S and Behl, C and Belaid, A and Belgareh-Touzé, N and Bellarosa, C and Belleudi, F and Belló Pérez, M and Bello-Morales, R and Beltran, JSDO and Beltran, S and Benbrook, DM and Bendorius, M and Benitez, BA and Benito-Cuesta, I and Bensalem, J and Berchtold, MW and Berezowska, S and Bergamaschi, D and Bergami, M and Bergmann, A and Berliocchi, L and Berlioz-Torrent, C and Bernard, A and Berthoux, L and Besirli, CG and Besteiro, S and Betin, VM and Beyaert, R and Bezbradica, JS and Bhaskar, K and Bhatia-Kissova, I and Bhattacharya, R and Bhattacharya, S and Bhattacharyya, S and Bhuiyan, MS and Bhutia, SK and Bi, L and Bi, X and Biden, TJ and Bijian, K and Billes, VA and Binart, N and Bincoletto, C and Birgisdottir, AB and Bjorkoy, G and Blanco, G and Blas-Garcia, A and Blasiak, J and Blomgran, R and Blomgren, K and Blum, JS and Boada-Romero, E and Boban, M and Boesze-Battaglia, K and Boeuf, P and Boland, B and Bomont, P and Bonaldo, P and Bonam, SR and Bonfili, L and Bonifacino, JS and Boone, BA and Bootman, MD and Bordi, M and Borner, C and Bornhauser, BC and Borthakur, G and Bosch, J and Bose, S and Botana, LM and Botas, J and Boulanger, CM and Boulton, ME and Bourdenx, M and Bourgeois, B and Bourke, NM and Bousquet, G and Boya, P and Bozhkov, PV and Bozi, LHM and Bozkurt, TO and Brackney, DE and Brandts, CH and Braun, RJ and Braus, GH and Bravo-Sagua, R and Bravo-San Pedro, JM and Brest, P and Bringer, M-A and Briones-Herrera, A and Broaddus, VC and Brodersen, P and Brodsky, JL and Brody, SL and Bronson, PG and Bronstein, JM and Brown, CN and Brown, RE and Brum, PC and Brumell, JH and Brunetti-Pierri, N and Bruno, D and Bryson-Richardson, RJ and Bucci, C and Buchrieser, C and Bueno, M and Buitrago-Molina, LE and Buraschi, S and Buch, S and Buchan, JR and Buckingham, EM and Budak, H and Budini, M and Bultynck, G and Burada, F and Burgoyne, JR and Burón, MI and Bustos, V and Büttner, S and Butturini, E and Byrd, A and Cabas, I and Cabrera-Benitez, S and Cadwell, K and Cai, J and Cai, L and Cai, Q and Cairó, M and Calbet, JA and Caldwell, GA and Caldwell, KA and Call, JA and Calvani, R and Calvo, AC and Calvo-Rubio Barrera, M and Camara, NOS and Camonis, JH and Camougrand, N and Campanella, M and Campbell, EM and Campbell-Valois, F-X and Campello, S and Campesi, I and Campos, JC and Camuzard, O and Cancino, J and Candido de Almeida, D and Canesi, L and Caniggia, I and Canonico, B and Cantí, C and Cao, B and Caraglia, M and Caramés, B and Carchman, EH and Cardenal-Muñoz, E and Cardenas, C and Cardenas, L and Cardoso, SM and Carew, JS and Carle, GF and Carleton, G and Carloni, S and Carmona-Gutierrez, D and Carneiro, LA and Carnevali, O and Carosi, JM and Carra, S and Carrier, A and Carrier, L and Carroll, B and Carter, AB and Carvalho, AN and Casanova, M and Casas, C and Casas, J and Cassioli, C and Castillo, EF and Castillo, K and Castillo-Lluva, S and Castoldi, F and Castori, M and Castro, AF and Castro-Caldas, M and Castro-Hernandez, J and Castro-Obregon, S and Catz, SD and Cavadas, C and Cavaliere, F and Cavallini, G and Cavinato, M and Cayuela, ML and Cebollada Rica, P and Cecarini, V and Cecconi, F and Cechowska-Pasko, M and Cenci, S and Ceperuelo-Mallafré, V and Cerqueira, JJ and Cerutti, JM and Cervia, D and Cetintas, VB and Cetrullo, S and Chae, H-J and Chagin, AS and Chai, C-Y and Chakrabarti, G and Chakrabarti, O and Chakraborty, T and Chakraborty, T and Chami, M and Chamilos, G and Chan, DW and Chan, EYW and Chan, ED and Chan, HYE and Chan, HH and Chan, H and Chan, MTV and Chan, YS and Chandra, PK and Chang, C-P and Chang, C and Chang, H-C and Chang, K and Chao, J and Chapman, T and Charlet-Berguerand, N and Chatterjee, S and Chaube, SK and Chaudhary, A and Chauhan, S and Chaum, E and Checler, F and Cheetham, ME and Chen, C-S and Chen, G-C and Chen, J-F and Chen, LL and Chen, L and Chen, L and Chen, M and Chen, M-K and Chen, N and Chen, Q and Chen, R-H and Chen, S and Chen, W and Chen, W and Chen, X-M and Chen, X-W and Chen, X and Chen, Y and Chen, Y-G and Chen, Y and Chen, Y and Chen, Y-J and Chen, Y-Q and Chen, ZS and Chen, Z and Chen, Z-H and Chen, ZJ and Chen, Z and Cheng, H and Cheng, J and Cheng, S-Y and Cheng, W and Cheng, X and Cheng, X-T and Cheng, Y and Cheng, Z and Chen, Z and Cheong, H and Cheong, JK and Chernyak, BV and Cherry, S and Cheung, CFR and Cheung, CHA and Cheung, K-H and Chevet, E and Chi, RJ and Chiang, AKS and Chiaradonna, F and Chiarelli, R and Chiariello, M and Chica, N and Chiocca, S and Chiong, M and Chiou, S-H and Chiramel, AI and Chiurchiù, V and Cho, D-H and Choe, S-K and Choi, AMK and Choi, ME and Choudhury, KR and Chow, NS and Chu, CT and Chua, JP and Chua, JJE and Chung, H and Chung, KP and Chung, S and Chung, S-H and Chung, Y-L and Cianfanelli, V and Ciechomska, IA and Cifuentes, M and Cinque, L and Cirak, S and Cirone, M and Clague, MJ and Clarke, R and Clementi, E and Coccia, EM and Codogno, P and Cohen, E and Cohen, MM and Colasanti, T and Colasuonno, F and Colbert, RA and Colell, A and Ä�oliÄ�, M and Coll, NS and Collins, MO and Colombo, MI and Colón-Ramos, DA and Combaret, L and Comincini, S and Cominetti, MR and Consiglio, A and Conte, A and Conti, F and Contu, VR and Cookson, MR and Coombs, KM and Coppens, I and Corasaniti, MT and Corkery, DP and Cordes, N and Cortese, K and Costa, MDC and Costantino, S and Costelli, P and Coto-Montes, A and Crack, PJ and Crespo, JL and Criollo, A and Crippa, V and Cristofani, R and Csizmadia, T and Cuadrado, A and Cui, B and Cui, J and Cui, Y and Cui, Y and Culetto, E and Cumino, AC and Cybulsky, AV and Czaja, MJ and Czuczwar, SJ and Dâ��Adamo, S and Dâ��Amelio, M and Dâ��Arcangelo, D and Dâ��Lugos, AC and Dâ��Orazi, G and da Silva, JA and Dafsari, HS and Dagda, RK and Dagdas, Y and Daglia, M and Dai, X and Dai, Y and Dai, Y and Dal Col, J and Dalhaimer, P and Dalla Valle, L and Dallenga, T and Dalmasso, G and Damme, M and Dando, I and Dantuma, NP and Darling, AL and Das, H and Dasarathy, S and Dasari, SK and Dash, S and Daumke, O and Dauphinee, AN and Davies, JS and Dávila, VA and Davis, RJ and Davis, T and Dayalan Naidu, S and De Amicis, F and De Bosscher, K and De Felice, F and De Franceschi, L and De Leonibus, C and de Mattos Barbosa, MG and De Meyer, GRY and De Milito, A and De Nunzio, C and De Palma, C and De Santi, M and De Virgilio, C and De Zio, D and Debnath, J and DeBosch, BJ and Decuypere, J-P and Deehan, MA and Deflorian, G and DeGregori, J and Dehay, B and Del Rio, G and Delaney, JR and Delbridge, LMD and Delorme-Axford, E and Delpino, MV and Demarchi, F and Dembitz, V and Demers, ND and Deng, H and Deng, Z and Dengjel, J and Dent, P and Denton, D and DePamphilis, ML and Der, CJ and Deretic, V and Descoteaux, A and Devis, L and Devkota, S and Devuyst, O and Dewson, G and Dharmasivam, M and Dhiman, R and di Bernardo, D and Di Cristina, M and Di Domenico, F and Di Fazio, P and Di Fonzo, A and Di Guardo, G and Di Guglielmo, GM and Di Leo, L and Di Malta, C and Di Nardo, A and Di Rienzo, M and Di Sano, F and Diallinas, G and Diao, J and Diaz-Araya, G and Díaz-Laviada, I and Dickinson, JM and Diederich, M and Dieudé, M and Dikic, I and Ding, S and Ding, W-X and Dini, L and DiniÄ�, J and Dinic, M and Dinkova-Kostova, AT and Dionne, MS and Distler, JHW and Diwan, A and Dixon, IMC and Djavaheri-Mergny, M and Dobrinski, I and Dobrovinskaya, O and Dobrowolski, R and Dobson, RCJ and Ä�okiÄ�, J and Dokmeci Emre, S and Donadelli, M and Dong, B and Dong, X and Dong, Z and Dorn II, GW and Dotsch, V and Dou, H and Dou, J and Dowaidar, M and Dridi, S and Drucker, L and Du, A and Du, C and Du, G and Du, H-N and Du, L-L and du Toit, A and Duan, S-B and Duan, X and Duarte, SP and Dubrovska, A and Dunlop, EA and Dupont, N and Durán, RV and Dwarakanath, BS and Dyshlovoy, SA and Ebrahimi-Fakhari, D and Eckhart, L and Edelstein, CL and Efferth, T and Eftekharpour, E and Eichinger, L and Eid, N and Eisenberg, T and Eissa, NT and Eissa, S and Ejarque, M and El Andaloussi, A and El-Hage, N and El-Naggar, S and Eleuteri, AM and El-Shafey, ES and Elgendy, M and Eliopoulos, AG and Elizalde, MM and Elks, PM and Elsasser, H-P and Elsherbiny, ES and Emerling, BM and Emre, NCT and Eng, CH and Engedal, N and Engelbrecht, A-M and Engelsen, AST and Enserink, JM and Escalante, R and Esclatine, A and Escobar-Henriques, M and Eskelinen, E-L and Espert, L and Eusebio, M-O and Fabrias, G and Fabrizi, C and Facchiano, A and Facchiano, F and Fadeel, B and Fader, C and Faesen, AC and Fairlie, WD and Falcó, A and Falkenburger, BH and Fan, D and Fan, J and Fan, Y and Fang, EF and Fang, Y and Fang, Y and Fanto, M and Farfel-Becker, T and Faure, M and Fazeli, G and Fedele, AO and Feldman, AM and Feng, D and Feng, J and Feng, L and Feng, Y and Feng, Y and Feng, W and Fenz Araujo, T and Ferguson, TA and Fernández, Ã�F and Fernandez-Checa, JC and Fernández-Veledo, S and Fernie, AR and Ferrante, Jr and Ferraresi, A and Ferrari, MF and Ferreira, JCB and Ferro-Novick, S and Figueras, A and Filadi, R and Filigheddu, N and Filippi-Chiela, E and Filomeni, G and Fimia, GM and Fineschi, V and Finetti, F and Finkbeiner, S and Fisher, EA and Fisher, PB and Flamigni, F and Fliesler, SJ and Flo, TH and Florance, I and Florey, O and Florio, T and Fodor, E and Follo, C and Fon, EA and Forlino, A and Fornai, F and Fortini, P and Fracassi, A and Fraldi, A and Franco, B and Franco, R and Franconi, F and Frankel, LB and Friedman, SL and Fröhlich, LF and Frühbeck, G and Fuentes, JM and Fujiki, Y and Fujita, N and Fujiwara, Y and Fukuda, M and Fulda, S and Furic, L and Furuya, N and Fusco, C and Gack, MU and Gaffke, L and Galadari, S and Galasso, A and Galindo, MF and Gallolu Kankanamalage, S and Galluzzi, L and Galy, V and Gammoh, N and Gan, B and Ganley, IG and Gao, F and Gao, H and Gao, M and Gao, P and Gao, S-J and Gao, W and Gao, X and Garcera, A and Garcia, MN and Garcia, VE and García-Del Portillo, F and Garcia-Escudero, V and Garcia-Garcia, A and Garcia-Macia, M and García-Moreno, D and Garcia-Ruiz, C and García-Sanz, P and Garg, AD and Gargini, R and Garofalo, T and Garry, RF and Gassen, NC and Gatica, D and Ge, L and Ge, W and Geiss-Friedlander, R and Gelfi, C and Genschik, P and Gentle, IE and Gerbino, V and Gerhardt, C and Germain, K and Germain, M and Gewirtz, DA and Ghasemipour Afshar, E and Ghavami, S and Ghigo, A and Ghosh, M and Giamas, G and Giampietri, C and Giatromanolaki, A and Gibson, GE and Gibson, SB and Ginet, V and Giniger, E and Giorgi, C and Girao, H and Girardin, SE and Giridharan, M and Giuliano, S and Giulivi, C and Giuriato, S and Giustiniani, J and Gluschko, A and Goder, V and Goginashvili, A and Golab, J and Goldstone, DC and Golebiewska, A and Gomes, LR and Gomez, R and Gómez-Sánchez, R and Gomez-Puerto, MC and Gomez-Sintes, R and Gong, Q and Goni, FM and González-Gallego, J and Gonzalez-Hernandez, T and Gonzalez-Polo, RA and Gonzalez-Reyes, JA and González-Rodríguez, P and Goping, IS and Gorbatyuk, MS and Gorbunov, NV and Görgülü, K and Gorojod, RM and Gorski, SM and Goruppi, S and Gotor, C and Gottlieb, RA and Gozes, I and Gozuacik, D and Graef, M and Gräler, MH and Granatiero, V and Grasso, D and Gray, JP and Green, DR and Greenhough, A and Gregory, SL and Griffin, EF and Grinstaff, MW and Gros, F and Grose, C and Gross, AS and Gruber, F and Grumati, P and Grune, T and Gu, X and Guan, J-L and Guardia, CM and Guda, K and Guerra, F and Guerri, C and Guha, P and Guillén, C and Gujar, S and Gukovskaya, A and Gukovsky, I and Gunst, J and Günther, A and Guntur, AR and Guo, C and Guo, C and Guo, H and Guo, L-W and Guo, M and Gupta, P and Gupta, SK and Gupta, S and Gupta, VB and Gupta, V and Gustafsson, AB and Gutterman, DD and HB, R and Haapasalo, A and Haber, JE and HaÄ�, A and Hadano, S and Hafrén, AJ and Haidar, M and Hall, BS and Halldén, G and Hamacher-Brady, A and Hamann, A and Hamasaki, M and Han, W and Hansen, M and Hanson, PI and Hao, Z and Harada, M and Harhaji-Trajkovic, L and Hariharan, N and Haroon, N and Harris, J and Hasegawa, T and Hasima Nagoor, N and Haspel, JA and Haucke, V and Hawkins, WD and Hay, BA and Haynes, CM and Hayrabedyan, SB and Hays, TS and He, C and He, Q and He, R-R and He, Y-W and He, Y-Y and Heakal, Y and Heberle, AM and Hejtmancik, JF and Helgason, GV and Henkel, V and Herb, M and Hergovich, A and Herman-Antosiewicz, A and Hernández, A and Hernandez, C and Hernandez-Diaz, S and Hernandez-Gea, V and Herpin, A and Herreros, J and Hervás, JH and Hesselson, D and Hetz, C and Heussler, VT and Higuchi, Y and Hilfiker, S and Hill, JA and Hlavacek, WS and Ho, EA and Ho, IHT and Ho, PW-L and Ho, S-L and Ho, WY and Hobbs, GA and Hochstrasser, M and Hoet, PHM and Hofius, D and Hofman, P and Höhn, A and Holmberg, CI and Hombrebueno, JR and Yi-Ren Hong, C-WH and Hooper, LV and Hoppe, T and Horos, R and Hoshida, Y and Hsin, I-L and Hsu, H-Y and Hu, B and Hu, D and Hu, L-F and Hu, MC and Hu, R and Hu, W and Hu, Y-C and Hu, Z-W and Hua, F and Hua, J and Hua, Y and Huan, C and Huang, C and Huang, C and Huang, C and Huang, C and Huang, H and Huang, K and Huang, MLH and Huang, R and Huang, S and Huang, T and Huang, X and Huang, YJ and Huber, TB and Hubert, V and Hubner, CA and Hughes, SM and Hughes, WE and Humbert, M and Hummer, G and Hurley, JH and Hussain, S and Hussain, S and Hussey, PJ and Hutabarat, M and Hwang, H-Y and Hwang, S and Ieni, A and Ikeda, F and Imagawa, Y and Imai, Y and Imbriano, C and Imoto, M and Inman, DM and Inoki, K and Iovanna, J and Iozzo, RV and Ippolito, G and Irazoqui, JE and Iribarren, P and Ishaq, M and Ishikawa, M and Ishimwe, N and Isidoro, C and Ismail, N and Issazadeh-Navikas, S and Itakura, E and Ito, D and Ivankovic, D and Ivanova, S and Iyer, AKV and Izquierdo, JM and Izumi, M and Jäättelä, M and Jabir, MS and Jackson, WT and Jacobo-Herrera, N and Jacomin, A-C and Jacquin, E and Jadiya, P and Jaeschke, H and Jagannath, C and Jakobi, AJ and Jakobsson, J and Janji, B and Jansen-Dürr, P and Jansson, PJ and Jantsch, J and Januszewski, S and Jassey, A and Jean, S and Jeltsch-David, H and Jendelova, P and Jenny, A and Jensen, TE and Jessen, N and Jewell, JL and Ji, J and Jia, L and Jia, R and Jiang, L and Jiang, Q and Jiang, R and Jiang, T and Jiang, X and Jiang, Y and Jimenez-Sanchez, M and Jin, E-J and Jin, F and Jin, H and Jin, L and Jin, L and Jin, M and Jin, S and Jo, E-K and Joffre, C and Johansen, T and Johnson, GVW and Johnston, SA and Jokitalo, E and Jolly, MK and Joosten, LAB and Jordan, J and Joseph, B and Ju, D and Ju, J-S and Ju, J and Juárez, E and Judith, D and Juhász, G and Jun, Y and Jung, CH and Jung, S-C and Jung, YK and Jungbluth, H and Jungverdorben, J and Just, S and Kaarniranta, K and Kaasik, A and Kabuta, T and Kaganovich, D and Kahana, A and Kain, R and Kajimura, S and Kalamvoki, M and Kalia, M and Kalinowski, DS and Kaludercic, N and Kalvari, I and Kaminska, J and Kaminskyy, VO and Kanamori, H and Kanasaki, K and Kang, C and Kang, R and Kang, SS and Kaniyappan, S and Kanki, T and Kanneganti, T-D and Kanthasamy, AG and Kanthasamy, A and Kantorow, M and Kapuy, O and Karamouzis, MV and Karim, MR and Karmakar, P and Katare, RG and Kato, M and Kaufmann, SHE and Kauppinen, A and Kaushal, GP and Kaushik, S and Kawasaki, K and Kazan, K and Ke, P-Y and Keating, DJ and Keber, U and Kehrl, JH and Keller, KE and Keller, CW and Kemper, JK and Kenific, CM and Kepp, O and Kermorgant, S and Kern, A and Ketteler, R and Keulers, TG and Khalfin, B and Khalil, H and Khambu, B and Khan, SY and Khandelwal, VKM and Khandia, R and Kho, W and Khobrekar, NV and Khuansuwan, S and Khundadze, M and Killackey, SA and Kim, D and Kim, DR and Kim, D-H and Kim, D-E and Kim, EY and Kim, E-K and Kim, H-R and Kim, H-S and Kim, Hyung-Ryong and Kim, JH and Kim, JK and Kim, J-H and Kim, J and Kim, JH and Kim, KI and Kim, PK and Kim, S-J and Kimball, SR and Kimchi, A and Kimmelman, AC and Kimura, T and King, MA and Kinghorn, KJ and Kinsey, CG and Kirkin, V and Kirshenbaum, LA and Kiselev, SL and Kishi, S and Kitamoto, K and Kitaoka, Y and Kitazato, K and Kitsis, RN and Kittler, JT and Kjaerulff, O and Klein, PS and Klopstock, T and Klucken, J and Knævelsrud, H and Knorr, RL and Ko, BCB and Ko, F and Ko, J-L and Kobayashi, H and Kobayashi, S and Koch, I and Koch, JC and Koenig, U and Kögel, D and Koh, YH and Koike, M and Kohlwein, SD and Kocaturk, NM and Komatsu, M and König, J and Kono, T and Kopp, BT and Korcsmaros, T and Korkmaz, G and Korolchuk, VI and Korsnes, MS and Koskela, A and Kota, J and Kotake, Y and Kotler, ML and Kou, Y and Koukourakis, MI and Koustas, E and Kovacs, AL and Kovács, T and Koya, D and Kozako, T and Kraft, C and Krainc, D and Krämer, H and Krasnodembskaya, AD and Kretz-Remy, C and Kroemer, G and Ktistakis, NT and Kuchitsu, K and Kuenen, S and Kuerschner, L and Kukar, T and Kumar, A and Kumar, A and Kumar, D and Kumar, D and Kumar, S and Kume, S and Kumsta, C and Kundu, CN and Kundu, M and Kunnumakkara, AB and Kurgan, L and Kutateladze, TG and Kutlu, O and Kwak, S and Kwon, HJ and Kwon, TK and Kwon, YT and Kyrmizi, I and La Spada, A and Labonté, P and Ladoire, S and Laface, I and Lafont, F and Lagace, DC and Lahiri, V and Lai, Z and Laird, AS and Lakkaraju, A and Lamark, T and Lan, S-H and Landajuela, A and Lane, DJR and Lane, JD and Lang, CH and Lange, C and Langel, Ã� and Langer, R and Lapaquette, P and Laporte, J and LaRusso, NF and Lastres-Becker, I and Lau, WCY and Laurie, GW and Lavandero, S and Law, BYK and Law, HK-W and Layfield, R and Le, W and Le Stunff, H and Leary, AY and Lebrun, J-J and Leck, LYW and Leduc-Gaudet, J-P and Lee, C and Lee, C-P and Lee, D-H and Lee, EB and Lee, EF and Lee, GM and Lee, H-J and Lee, HK and Lee, JM and Lee, JS and Lee, J-A and Lee, J-Y and Lee, JH and Lee, M and Lee, MG and Lee, MJ and Lee, M-S and Lee, SY and Lee, S-J and Lee, SY and Lee, SB and Lee, WH and Lee, Y-R and Lee, Y-H and Lee, Y and Lefebvre, C and Legouis, R and Lei, YL and Lei, Y and Leikin, S and Leitinger, G and Lemus, L and Leng, S and Lenoir, O and Lenz, G and Lenz, HJ and Lenzi, P and León, Y and Leopoldino, AM and Leschczyk, C and Leskelä, S and Letellier, E and Leung, C-T and Leung, PS and Leventhal, JS and Levine, B and Lewis, PA and Ley, K and Li, B and Li, D-Q and Li, J and Li, J and Li, J and Li, K and Li, L and Li, M and Li, M and Li, M and Li, M and Li, M and Li, P-L and Li, M-Q and Li, Q and Li, S and Li, T and Li, W and Li, W and Li, X and Li, Y-P and Li, Y and Li, Z and Li, Z and Li, Z and Lian, J and Liang, C and Liang, Q and Liang, W and Liang, Y and Liang, Y and Liao, G and Liao, L and Liao, M and Liao, Y-F and Librizzi, M and Lie, PPY and Lilly, MA and Lim, HJ and Lima, TRR and Limana, F and Lin, C and Lin, C-W and Lin, D-S and Lin, F-C and Lin, JD and Lin, KM and Lin, K-H and Lin, L-T and Lin, P-H and Lin, Q and Lin, S and Lin, S-J and Lin, W and Lin, X and Lin, Y-X and Lin, Y-S and Linden, R and Lindner, P and Ling, S-C and Lingor, P and Linnemann, AK and Liou, Y-C and Lipinski, MM and LipovÅ¡ek, S and Lira, VA and Lisiak, N and Liton, PB and Liu, C and Liu, C-H and Liu, C-F and Liu, CH and Liu, F and Liu, H and Liu, H-S and Liu, H-F and Liu, H and Liu, J and Liu, J and Liu, J and Liu, L and Liu, L and Liu, M and Liu, Q and Liu, W and Liu, W and Liu, X-H and Liu, X and Liu, X and Liu, X and Liu, X and Liu, Y and Liu, Y and Liu, Y and Liu, Y and Liu, Y and Livingston, JA and Lizard, G and Lizcano, JM and Ljubojevic-Holzer, S and LLeonart, ME and Llobet-Navà s, D and Llorente, A and Lo, CH and Lobato-Márquez, D and Long, Q and Long, YC and Loos, B and Loos, JA and López, MG and López-Doménech, G and López-Guerrero, JA and López-Jiménez, AT and López-Pérez, Ã� and López-Valero, I and Lorenowicz, MJ and Lorente, M and Lorincz, P and Lossi, L and Lotersztajn, S and Lovat, PE and Lovell, JF and Lovy, A and LÅ�w, P and Lu, G and Lu, H and Lu, J-H and Lu, J-J and Lu, M and Lu, S and Luciani, A and Lucocq, JM and Ludovico, P and Luftig, MA and Luhr, M and Luis-Ravelo, D and Lum, JJ and Luna-Dulcey, L and Lund, AH and Lund, VK and Lünemann, JD and Lüningschrör, P and Luo, H and Luo, R and Luo, S and Luo, Z and Luparello, C and Lüscher, B and Luu, L and Lyakhovich, A and Lyamzaev, KG and Lystad, AH and Lytvynchuk, L and Ma, AC and Ma, C and Ma, M and Ma, N-F and Ma, Q-H and Ma, X and Ma, Y and Ma, Z and MacDougald, OA and Macian, F and MacIntosh, GC and MacKeigan, JP and Macleod, KF and Maday, S and Madeo, F and Madesh, M and Madl, T and Madrigal-Matute, J and Maeda, A and Maejima, Y and Magarinos, M and Mahavadi, P and Maiani, E and Maiese, K and Maiti, P and Maiuri, MC and Majello, B and Major, MB and Makareeva, E and Malik, F and Mallilankaraman, K and Malorni, W and Maloyan, A and Mammadova, N and Man, GCW and Manai, F and Mancias, JD and Mandelkow, E-M and Mandell, MA and Manfredi, AA and Manjili, MH and Manjithaya, R and Manque, P and Manshian, BB and Manzano, R and Manzoni, C and Mao, K and Marchese, C and Marchetti, S and Marconi, AM and Marcucci, F and Mardente, S and Mareninova, OA and Margeta, M and Mari, M and Marinelli, S and Marinelli, O and Mariño, G and Mariotto, S and Marshall, RS and Marten, MR and Martens, S and Martin, APJ and Martin, KR and Martin, S and Martin, S and Martín-Segura, A and Martín-Acebes, MA and Martin-Burriel, I and Martin-Rincon, M and Martin-Sanz, P and Martina, JA and Martinet, W and Martinez, A and Martinez, A and Martinez, J and Martinez Velazquez, M and Martinez-Lopez, N and Martinez-Vicente, M and Martins, DO and Martins, JO and Martins, WK and Martins-Marques, T and Marzetti, E and Masaldan, S and Masclaux-Daubresse, C and Mashek, DG and Massa, V and Massieu, L and Masson, GR and Masuelli, L and Masyuk, AI and Masyuk, TV and Matarrese, P and Matheu, A and Matoba, S and Matsuzaki, S and Mattar, P and Matte, A and Mattoscio, D and Mauriz, JL and Mauthe, M and Mauvezin, C and Maverakis, E and Maycotte, P and Mayer, J and Mazzoccoli, G and Mazzoni, C and Mazzulli, JR and McCarty, N and McDonald, C and McGill, MR and McKenna, SL and McLaughlin, B and McLoughlin, F and McNiven, MA and McWilliams, TG and Mechta-Grigoriou, F and Medeiros, TC and Medina, DL and Megeney, LA and Megyeri, K and Mehrpour, M and Mehta, JL and Meijer, AJ and Meijer, AH and Mejlvang, J and 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Ogmundsdottir, MH and Ogretmen, B and Oh, GT and Oh, S-H and Oh, YJ and Ohama, T and Ohashi, Y and Ohmuraya, M and Oikonomou, V and Ojha, R and Okamoto, K and Okazawa, H and Oku, M and Oliván, S and Oliveira, JMA and Ollmann, M and Olzmann, JA and Omari, S and Omary, MB and Ã�nal, G and Ondrej, M and Ong, S-B and Ong, S-G and Onnis, A and Orellana, JA and Orellana-Muñoz, S and Ortega-Villaizan, MDM and Ortiz-Gonzalez, XR and Ortona, E and Osiewacz, HD and Osman, A-HK and Osta, R and Otegui, MS and Otsu, K and Ott, C and Ottobrini, L and Ou, J-HJ and Outeiro, TF and Oynebraten, I and Ozturk, M and Pagès, G and Pahari, S and Pajares, M and Pajvani, UB and Pal, R and Paladino, S and Pallet, N and Palmieri, M and Palmisano, G and Palumbo, C and Pampaloni, F and Pan, L and Pan, Q and Pan, W and Pan, X and Panasyuk, G and Pandey, R and Pandey, UB and Pandya, V and Paneni, F and Pang, SY and Panzarini, E and Papademetrio, DL and Papaleo, E and Papinski, D and Papp, D and Park, EC and Park, HT and Park, J-M and Park, J-I and Park, JT and Park, J and Park, SC and Park, S-Y and Parola, AH and Parys, JB and Pasquier, A and Pasquier, B and Passos, JF and Pastore, N and Patel, HH and Patschan, D and Pattingre, S and Pedraza-Alva, G and Pedraza-Chaverri, J and Pedrozo, Z and Pei, G and Pei, J and Peled-Zehavi, H and Pellegrini, JM and Pelletier, J and Peñalva, MA and Peng, D and Peng, Y and Penna, F and Pennuto, M and Pentimalli, F and Pereira, CMF and Pereira, GJS and Pereira, LC and Pereira de Almeida, L and Perera, ND and Pérez-Lara, Ã� and Perez-Oliva, AB and Pérez-Pérez, ME and Periyasamy, P and Perl, A and Perrotta, C and Perrotta, I and Pestell, RG and Petersen, M and Petrache, I and Petrovski, G and Pfirrmann, T and Pfister, AS and Philips, JA and Pi, H and Picca, A and Pickrell, AM and Picot, S and Pierantoni, GM and Pierdominici, M and Pierre, P and Pierrefite-Carle, V and Pierzynowska, K and Pietrocola, F and Pietruczuk, M and Pignata, C and Pimentel-Muiños, FX and Pinar, M and Pinheiro, RO and Pinkas-Kramarski, R and Pinton, P and Pircs, K and Piya, S and Pizzo, P and Plantinga, TS and Platta, HW and Plaza-Zabala, A and Plomann, M and Plotnikov, EY and Plun-Favreau, H and Pluta, R and Pocock, R and Pöggeler, S and Pohl, C and Poirot, M and Poletti, A and Ponpuak, M and Popelka, H and Popova, B and Porta, H and Porte Alcon, S and Portilla-Fernandez, E and Post, M and Potts, MB and Poulton, J and Powers, T and Prahlad, V and Prajsnar, TK and Praticò, D and Prencipe, R and Priault, M and Proikas-Cezanne, T and Promponas, VJ and Proud, CG and Puertollano, R and Puglielli, L and Pulinilkunnil, T and Puri, D and Puri, R and Puyal, J and Qi, X and Qi, Y and Qian, W and Qiang, L and Qiu, Y and Quadrilatero, J and Quarleri, J and Raben, N and Rabinowich, H and Ragona, D and Ragusa, MJ and Rahimi, N and Rahmati, M and Raia, V and Raimundo, N and Rajasekaran, N-S and Ramachandra Rao, S and Rami, A and Ramírez-Pardo, I and Ramsden, DB and Randow, F and 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Romeo-Guitart, D and Romero, LC and Romero, M and Roney, JC and Rongo, C and Roperto, S and Rosenfeldt, MT and Rosenstiel, P and Rosenwald, AG and Roth, KA and Roth, L and Roth, S and Rouschop, KMA and Roussel, BD and Roux, S and Rovere-Querini, P and Roy, A and Rozieres, A and Ruano, D and Rubinsztein, DC and Rubtsova, MP and Ruckdeschel, K and Ruckenstuhl, C and Rudolf, E and Rudolf, R and Ruggieri, A and Ruparelia, AA and Rusmini, P and Russell, RR and Russo, GL and Russo, M and Russo, R and Ryabaya, OO and Ryan, KM and Ryu, K-Y and Sabater-Arcis, M and Sachdev, U and Sacher, M and Sachse, C and Sadhu, A and Sadoshima, J and Safren, N and Saftig, P and Sagona, AP and Sahay, G and Sahebkar, A and Sahin, M and Sahin, O and Sahni, S and Saito, N and Saito, S and Saito, T and Sakai, R and Sakai, Y and Sakamaki, J-I and Saksela, K and Salazar, G and Salazar-Degracia, A and Salekdeh, GH and Saluja, AK and Sampaio-Marques, B and Sanchez, MC and Sanchez-Alcazar, JA and Sanchez-Vera, V and 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D and Sebti, S and Sedej, S and Segatori, L and Segev, N and Seglen, PO and Seiliez, I and Seki, E and Selleck, SB and Sellke, FW and Selsby, JT and Sendtner, M and Senturk, S and Seranova, E and Sergi, C and Serra-Moreno, R and Sesaki, H and Settembre, C and Setty, SRG and Sgarbi, G and Sha, O and Shacka, JJ and Shah, JA and Shang, D and Shao, C and Shao, F and Sharbati, S and Sharkey, LM and Sharma, D and Sharma, G and Sharma, K and Sharma, P and Sharma, S and Shen, H-M and Shen, H and Shen, J and Shen, M and Shen, W and Shen, Z and Sheng, R and Sheng, Z and Sheng, Z-H and Shi, J and Shi, X and Shi, Y-H and Shiba-Fukushima, K and Shieh, J-J and Shimada, Y and Shimizu, S and Shimozawa, M and Shintani, T and Shoemaker, CJ and Shojaei, S and Shoji, I and Shravage, BV and Shridhar, V and Shu, C-W and Shu, H-B and Shui, K and Shukla, AK and Shutt, TE and Sica, V and Siddiqui, A and Sierra, A and Sierra-Torre, V and Signorelli, S and Sil, P and Silva, BJDA and Silva, JD and Silva-Pavez, E 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and Tong, C-K (2021) Guidelines for the use and interpretation of assays for monitoring autophagy (4th edition)1. In: Autophagy, 17 (1). pp. 1-382.

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1080/15548627.2020.1797280


In 2008, we published the first set of guidelines for standardizing research in autophagy. Since then, this topic has received increasing attention, and many scientists have entered the field. Our knowledge base and relevant new technologies have also been expanding. Thus, it is important to formulate on a regular basis updated guidelines for monitoring autophagy in different organisms. Despite numerous reviews, there continues to be confusion regarding acceptable methods to evaluate autophagy, especially in multicellular eukaryotes. Here, we present a set of guidelines for investigators to select and interpret methods to examine autophagy and related processes, and for reviewers to provide realistic and reasonable critiques of reports that are focused on these processes. These guidelines are not meant to be a dogmatic set of rules, because the appropriateness of any assay largely depends on the question being asked and the system being used. Moreover, no individual assay is perfect for every situation, calling for the use of multiple techniques to properly monitor autophagy in each experimental setting. Finally, several core components of the autophagy machinery have been implicated in distinct autophagic processes (canonical and noncanonical autophagy), implying that genetic approaches to block autophagy should rely on targeting two or more autophagy-related genes that ideally participate in distinct steps of the pathway. Along similar lines, because multiple proteins involved in autophagy also regulate other cellular pathways including apoptosis, not all of them can be used as a specific marker for bona fide autophagic responses. Here, we critically discuss current methods of assessing autophagy and the information they can, or cannot, provide. Our ultimate goal is to encourage intellectual and technical innovation in the field. © 2020 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group.

Item Type: Journal Article
Publication: Autophagy
Publisher: Taylor and Francis Ltd.
Additional Information: The copyright for this article belongs to the Authors.
Keywords: adenylate kinase; atg16l1 protein; autophagy related protein; autophagy related protein 14; autophagy related protein 18; autophagy related protein 5; autophagy related protein 8 family; beclin 1; biological marker; dfcp1 protein; DNA; gamma interferon; green fluorescent protein; mammalian target of rapamycin; nanoparticle; phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase; protein; RNA; sequestosome 1; serine threonine protein kinase ULK1; SNARE protein; sphingolipid; stx17 protein; tecpr1 protein; ubiquitin; unclassified drug; autophagy related protein; biological marker, aggrephagy; apicoplast; assay; autophagosome; autophagy (cellular); bimolecular fluorescence complementation; Caenorhabditis elegans; cell death; cell nucleus; cell stress; cell vacuole; chlorophagy; chromatophagy; clockophagy; crinophagy; data base; doryphagy; Drosophila melanogaster; DT40 cell line; enzyme activity; erythroid cell; ferritinophagy; filamentous fungus; flow cytometry; fluorescence microscopy; food biotechnology; gene dosage; genomics; granulophagy; helminth; honeybee; human; Hydra; immunofluorescence assay; immunohistochemistry; induced pluripotent stem cell; Lepidoptera; lipophagocytosis; lysophagy; lysosome; macroautophagy; malignant neoplasm; marine invertebrate; mathematical model; microautophagy; mitophagy; myelinophagy; Neotropical teleosts; nerve degeneration; nonhuman; nucleophagocytosis; odontoblast; Oncorhynchus mykiss; oxiapoptophagy; pexography; plant; practice guideline; protein analysis; protein degradation; protein processing; proteomics; proteophagy; protist; reticulophagy; retinal pigment epithelium; Review; ribophagy; sea urchin; selective autophagy; tick; transcription regulation; transmission electron microscopy; Turbellaria; virophagy; Western blotting; xenophagy; yeast; zebra fish; zymophagy; animal; autophagy; bioassay; metabolism; physiology, Animals; Autophagosomes; Autophagy; Autophagy-Related Proteins; Biological Assay; Biomarkers; Humans; Lysosomes
Department/Centre: Division of Interdisciplinary Sciences > Centre for Biosystems Science and Engineering
Date Deposited: 27 Apr 2023 05:09
Last Modified: 27 Apr 2023 05:09
URI: https://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/81439

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