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Contact Guidance Mediated by Hybrid Thread Topography Enhances Osseointegration of As-machined Ti6Al4V Dental Implant

Mishra, D and Neethu, RS and Shetty, V and Shenoy, SJ and Komath, M and Varma, H and Sabareeswaran, A and Basu, B (2023) Contact Guidance Mediated by Hybrid Thread Topography Enhances Osseointegration of As-machined Ti6Al4V Dental Implant. In: Regenerative Engineering and Translational Medicine .

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40883-023-00293-2


Purpose: The main objective of this study is to investigate the key role of as-machined implant design features on the osseointegration. The bone regeneration ability of the newly developed Ti6Al4V hybrid threaded tapered implant without any surface modification has been validated and benchmarked against Straumann® implant (control) in the rabbit model for 12 weeks. Material and Methods: The test and control implants were implanted in the femur medial condyle of twelve adult New Zealand white rabbits on the contralateral limbs; each femoral medial condyle received a test or control implant randomly. The bone formation and osseointegration around the implants were assessed qualitatively and quantitatively using histology, micro-computed tomography (Micro-CT), molecular gene studies, and histomorphometric analysis after 12 weeks of implantation. Results: The overall assessment suggests homogenous and continuous neobone formation and osseointegration around the hybrid threads of the test implants. Superior bone-to-implant contact percentage (BIC) was observed in the case of hybrid threaded test implants with an average value of 80.8, compared to 67.1 for the control implant. Upregulated expression of osteogenic (COL1A1, RUNX2, SPARC, and SPP1) and angiogenic (VEGF) genes in the case of test implant indicates better coupled osseointegrationa and angiogenesis. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the extent of neobone formation and expression of the osteogenic/angiogenic genes is positively correlated with optimal design features of the implant, which leads to the contact guidance of the osteoblasts on the implant surface. The study also advocates that the novel tapered multithreaded implant design concept alone, without any surface modification, can facilitate osseointegration in a manner better than clinically used surface-modified implants. Lay Summary: Dental implants are artificial tooth roots and are used to treat complete or partial toothlessness. The new implant design concept reported here is expected to support both soft tissue and hard tissue attachment and to improve primary stability. This study unraveled the effect of the novel external hybrid thread design on the implant integration with the surrounding bone. This aspect was validated in the rabbit model and benchmarked against the commercially available Straumann® implant. This study has unambiguously demonstrated the ability of as-machined Ti implants to facilitate better new bone and new blood vessels formation than the commercial implant. Graphical Abstract: Figure not available: see fulltext. © 2023, The Author(s), under exclusive licence to The Regenerative Engineering Society.

Item Type: Journal Article
Publication: Regenerative Engineering and Translational Medicine
Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Additional Information: The copyright for this article belongs to Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH.
Keywords: Dental implants; Histopathology; Hybrid threads; In vivo implantation; Micro-CT; Micro-threads; Osseointegration; Tapered; Ti6Al4V
Department/Centre: Division of Chemical Sciences > Materials Research Centre
Division of Interdisciplinary Sciences > Centre for Biosystems Science and Engineering
Date Deposited: 25 Apr 2023 05:09
Last Modified: 25 Apr 2023 05:09
URI: https://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/81272

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