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Indentation and Fragmentation of Wood Under Low-Speed Impact

Tonannavar, S and Shivakumar, ND and Simha, KRY and Shrikanth, V and Bhole, K (2023) Indentation and Fragmentation of Wood Under Low-Speed Impact. In: Journal of Dynamic Behavior of Materials .

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1007/s40870-023-00367-w


Wood is an impact-resistant biological material architectured with fibers and hexagonal cells. Impact and quasi-static compression of natural wood perpendicular to fibers leads to indentation with fiber compaction and splitting (crack propagation along fibers). Conversely, loading parallel to fiber results in indentation and radial cracking before fragmentation. The impulse and energy absorbed manifest as indentation, cracking, and fragmentation depending on the loading rate and fiber orientation. This article highlights indentation and fragmentation in two species of wood: Neem (Melia Dubia) and Jackfruit (Artocarpus Heterophyllus).Guided by ASTM D7136 standard drop weight tests with a 0.025 m diameter, 22 kg steel indenter are conducted for characterizing indentation, cracking, and fragmentation for two fiber orientations of wood. Quasi-static compression tests also conducted with the same punch diameter further characterize specimen stiffness and indentation patterns for modeling the phenomena from a mechanics viewpoint as well as statistics standpoint. Hertzian mechanics provides a simple means for relating impulse and energy requirement with indentation. Interestingly, Gaudin-Schumann’s power law with Schumann index equal to 2.5, widely applied for brittle materials like ceramic, glass, and rock, also applies to the two wooden species investigated here. Extending the investigations presented here can provide useful data for designing sports goods, dwellings, boats, and furniture. © 2023, Society for Experimental Mechanics, Inc.

Item Type: Journal Article
Publication: Journal of Dynamic Behavior of Materials
Publisher: Institute for Ionics
Additional Information: The copyright for this article belongs to Institute for Ionics.
Keywords: Biological materials; Brittle fracture; Compaction; Compression testing; Cracks; Drops; Indentation; Steel fibers; Wood, Drop-weight impacts; Fiber cells; Fibre orientation; Fragmentation; Hexagonal cells; Low speed; Quasi-static compression; Speed impacts; Strain rate softening; Strain-rates, Strain rate
Department/Centre: Division of Mechanical Sciences > Centre for Product Design & Manufacturing
Division of Mechanical Sciences > Mechanical Engineering
Date Deposited: 16 Feb 2023 05:27
Last Modified: 16 Feb 2023 05:27
URI: https://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/80313

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