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Next-generation personalized cranioplasty treatment

Thimukonda Jegadeesan, J and Baldia, M and Basu, B (2022) Next-generation personalized cranioplasty treatment. In: Acta Biomaterialia .

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.actbio.2022.10.030


Decompressive craniectomy (DC) is a surgical procedure, that is followed by cranioplasty surgery. DC is usually performed to treat patients with traumatic brain injury, intracranial hemorrhage, cerebral infarction, brain edema, skull fractures, etc. In many published clinical case studies and systematic reviews, cranioplasty surgery is reported to restore cranial symmetry with good cosmetic outcomes and neurophysiologically relevant functional outcomes in hundreds of patients. In this review article, we present a number of key issues related to the manufacturing of patient-specific implants, clinical complications, cosmetic outcomes, and newer alternative therapies. While discussing alternative therapeutic treatments for cranioplasty, biomolecules and cellular-based approaches have been emphasized. The current clinical practices in the restoration of cranial defects involve 3D printing to produce patient-specific prefabricated cranial implants, that provide better cosmetic outcomes. Regardless of the advancements in image processing and 3D printing, the complete clinical procedure is time-consuming and requires significant costs. To reduce manual intervention and to address unmet clinical demands, it has been highlighted that automated implant fabrication by data-driven methods can accelerate the design and manufacturing of patient-specific cranial implants. The data-driven approaches, encompassing artificial intelligence (machine learning/deep learning) and E-platforms, such as publicly accessible clinical databases will lead to the development of the next generation of patient-specific cranial implants, which can provide predictable clinical outcomes. Statement of significance: Cranioplasty is performed to reconstruct cranial defects of patients who have undergone decompressive craniectomy. Cranioplasty surgery improves the aesthetic and functional outcomes of those patients. To meet the clinical demands of cranioplasty surgery, accelerated designing and manufacturing of 3D cranial implants are required. This review provides an overview of biomaterial implants and bone flap manufacturing methods for cranioplasty surgery. In addition, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine-based approaches to reduce clinical complications are also highlighted. The potential use of data-driven computer applications and data-driven artificial intelligence-based approaches are emphasized to accelerate the clinical protocols of cranioplasty treatment with less manual intervention and shorter intraoperative time.

Item Type: Journal Article
Publication: Acta Biomaterialia
Publisher: Acta Materialia Inc
Additional Information: The copyright for this article belongs to Acta Materialia Inc.
Keywords: 3D printers; Bone; Brain; Cosmetics; Defects; Image processing; Restoration; Surgery, 3D-printing; Automatic implant design; Clinical complications; Cranial defects; Cranial implants; Cranioplasty; Decompressive craniectomy; Implant design; Patient specific; Patient-specific implant, Tissue engineering
Department/Centre: Division of Chemical Sciences > Materials Research Centre
Division of Interdisciplinary Sciences > Centre for Biosystems Science and Engineering
Date Deposited: 05 Jan 2023 07:15
Last Modified: 05 Jan 2023 07:15
URI: https://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/78746

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