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Anodization of medical grade stainless steel for improved corrosion resistance and nanostructure formation targeting biomedical applications

Herath, I and Davies, J and Will, G and Tran, PA and Velic, A and Sarvghad, M and Islam, M and Paritala, PK and Jaggessar, A and Schuetz, M and Chatterjee, K and Yarlagadda, PKDV (2022) Anodization of medical grade stainless steel for improved corrosion resistance and nanostructure formation targeting biomedical applications. In: Electrochimica Acta, 416 .

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.electacta.2022.140274


Stainless steel is extensively used in various biomedical engineering and hospital applications, including surgical equipment and furniture. Strong adhesion of bacteria and viruses on metal surfaces can restrict long-term utilization for biomedical applications. This study aims to develop an improved electrochemical etching protocol for the anodization of 316 L grade stainless steel (10 � 15 mm) to fabricate nanostructures for biomedical and hospital applications. Anodizing conditions were optimized using two different electrolyte solutions; HNO3: H2SO4 (1:1) and HNO3, by varying applied potential, electrolyte concentration and anodizing time. Morphology and topography of the anodized surfaces were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning Kelvin probe force microscopy (SKPFM). AC and DC electrochemical techniques were used to further characterize the corrosion behaviour of the nanostructured surfaces. Electrochemical optimization produced two different nanostructured surfaces with the anodizing conditions of (1) 50 HNO3 at 0.465 A/cm2 for 1 min (surface 1), and (2) 0.5 M HNO3 + H2SO4 (1:1) at 0.366 A/cm2 for 5 min (surface 2). Both processes produced nanoscale surface roughness with varying corrosion susceptibility. Surfaces anodized using 50 HNO3 comprised of �hierarchical roughness� with dense spikes (10 � 20 nm in diameter), covering rock candy-like protrusion (10 - 15 µm diameter). Whereas the second set of conditions produced single scale roughness with a terrace-like topography with nanoscale ridges of 34.8 ± 1.2 nm in width atop microscale hills. Surface 2 possessed improved corrosion resistance through the formation an oxide film, while the surface 1 was more susceptible to corrosion. Overall, this study demonstrates the importance of the careful optimization of electrochemical surface treatment for medical grade stainless steel in terms of roughness of nanostructures and corrosion susceptibility. © 2022 Elsevier Ltd

Item Type: Journal Article
Publication: Electrochimica Acta
Publisher: Elsevier Ltd
Additional Information: The copyright for this article belongs to Elsevier Ltd
Keywords: Biomedical engineering; Corrosion resistance; Corrosive effects; Electrolytes; Medical applications; Morphology; Scanning electron microscopy; Steel corrosion; Surface roughness, Anodizations; Biomedical; Biomedical applications; Condition; Corrosion susceptibility; Medical grades; Metal surfaces; Nanostructure formation; Nanostructured surface; Optimisations, Nanostructures
Department/Centre: Division of Mechanical Sciences > Materials Engineering (formerly Metallurgy)
Date Deposited: 17 May 2022 09:24
Last Modified: 17 May 2022 09:24
URI: https://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/71745

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