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Biodegradation of phorate by bacterial strains in the presence of humic acid and metal ions

Singh, S and Kumar, V and Anil, AG and Romero, R and Ramamurthy, PC and Singh, J (2021) Biodegradation of phorate by bacterial strains in the presence of humic acid and metal ions. In: Journal of Basic Microbiology, 62 (3-4). pp. 498-507.

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1002/jobm.202100332


Phorate is a systemic insecticide used to eradicate mites, insects, and nematodes. Extensive use of this organophosphate has engendered severe environmental concerns. The current research aimed to explore the kinetic pathways of phorate biodegradation in aqueous solutions. Two novel bacterial strains Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PR1 (KP268772.1) and Pseudomonas sp. PR_02 (KP268773.1) were isolated, screened, and developed given their potential to degrade phorate. Mineralization of phorate was assayed with and without the addition of metal ions [Fe (II) and Cu (II)] and humic acid (HA). In 14 days, experiment both strains have consumed about 69%–94.5% (half-life from 3.58 to 6.02 days) of phorate. The observed biodegradation rate of phorate with Cu (II) in the system was 73% and 87%, with a half-life of 4.86 and 4.07 days for PR1 and PR2, respectively. The biodegradation of phorate using Fe(II) was 69% and 82%, with half-life periods 5.68 and 4.49 days. Meanwhile, incorporating HA, the phorate biodegradation was inhibited significantly, showing 71% and 85% degradation, with half-life periods of 6.02 and 5.02 days. The results indicated that both bacterial strains were able to mineralize phorate with PR2 > PR1. Summarizing, the inhibition in phorate biodegradation order under different conditions was as HA > Fe (II) > Cu (II). UV–visible measurements and gas chromatography-mass spectrometric assays indicated that the possible degradation pathway of phorate included ethoxy-phosphonothio-methanethiol S-mercaptomethyl-O,O-dihydrogen phosphorodithioate, diethyl-methylphosphonate, methane dithiol, ethanethiol, and phosphate, as the main metabolites identified. Therefore, it was concluded that the newly isolated Pseudomonas strains could be a potential candidates for biodegradation of phorate in a cost-effective, safe, and environmentally friendly alternative.

Item Type: Journal Article
Publication: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Publisher: John Wiley and Sons Inc
Additional Information: The copyright for this article belongs to the John Wiley and Sons Inc
Department/Centre: Division of Interdisciplinary Sciences > Interdisciplinary Centre for Water Research
Division of Mechanical Sciences > Materials Engineering (formerly Metallurgy)
Date Deposited: 03 Dec 2021 08:29
Last Modified: 16 Jun 2022 06:52
URI: https://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/70210

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