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Defying the odds: Determinants of the antimicrobial response of Salmonella Typhi and their interplay

Chowdhury, AR and Mukherjee, D and Chatterjee, R and Chakravortty, D (2023) Defying the odds: Determinants of the antimicrobial response of Salmonella Typhi and their interplay. In: Molecular Microbiology .

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1111/mmi.15209


Salmonella Typhi, the invasive serovar of S. enterica subspecies enterica, causes typhoid fever in healthy human hosts. The emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains has consistently challenged the successful treatment of typhoid fever with conventional antibiotics. Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in Salmonella is acquired either by mutations in the genomic DNA or by acquiring extrachromosomal DNA via horizontal gene transfer. In addition, Salmonella can form a subpopulation of antibiotic persistent (AP) cells that can survive at high concentrations of antibiotics. These have reduced the effectiveness of the first and second lines of antibiotics used to treat Salmonella infection. The recurrent and chronic carriage of S. Typhi in human hosts further complicates the treatment process, as a remarkable shift in the immune response from pro-inflammatory Th1 to anti-inflammatory Th2 is observed. Recent studies have also highlighted the overlap between AP, persistent infection (PI) and AMR. These incidents have revealed several areas of research. In this review, we have put forward a timeline for the evolution of antibiotic resistance in Salmonella and discussed the different mechanisms of the same availed by the pathogen at the genotypic and phenotypic levels. Further, we have presented a detailed discussion on Salmonella antibiotic persistence (AP), PI, the host and bacterial virulence factors that can influence PI, and how both AP and PI can lead to AMR. © 2023 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

Item Type: Journal Article
Publication: Molecular Microbiology
Publisher: John Wiley and Sons Inc
Additional Information: The copyright for this article belongs to Author.
Department/Centre: Division of Biological Sciences > Microbiology & Cell Biology
Date Deposited: 01 Mar 2024 05:24
Last Modified: 01 Mar 2024 05:24
URI: https://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/83768

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