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Detection Possibility of Continuous Gravitational Waves from Rotating Magnetized Neutron Stars

Das, M and Mukhopadhyay, B (2023) Detection Possibility of Continuous Gravitational Waves from Rotating Magnetized Neutron Stars. In: Astrophysical Journal, 955 (1).

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.3847/1538-4357/aceb63


In recent decades, several neutron stars (NSs), particularly pulsars, with masses of M > 2 M ⊙ have been observed. On the other hand, the existence of massive white dwarfs, even violating the Chandrasekhar mass limit, was inferred from the peak luminosities of Type Ia supernovae. Hence, there is a generic question of the origin of massive compact objects. Here we explore the existence of massive, magnetized, rotating NSs with the soft and steep equations of state by solving axisymmetric stationary stellar equilibria in general relativity. For our purposes, we consider the Einstein equation solver for stellar structure XNS code. Such rotating NSs with magnetic fields and rotation axes misaligned, and hence a nonzero obliquity angle, can emit continuous gravitational waves (GWs), which can be detected by upcoming detectors, e.g., the Einstein Telescope, etc. We discuss the decay of the magnetic field, angular velocity, and obliquity angle with time due to angular momentum extraction by GWs and dipole radiation, which determine the timescales related to the GW emission. Further, in the Alfvén timescale, a differentially rotating, massive proto-NS rapidly settles into a uniformly rotating, less massive NS due to magnetic braking and viscosity. These explorations suggest that detecting massive NSs is challenging and sets a timescale for detection. We calculate the signal-to-noise ratio of GW emission, which confirms that any detector cannot detect them immediately, but that they are detectable by the Einstein Telescope and Cosmic Explorer over months of integration time, leading to direct detection of NSs. © 2023. The Author(s). Published by the American Astronomical Society.

Item Type: Journal Article
Publication: Astrophysical Journal
Publisher: Institute of Physics
Additional Information: The copyright for this article belongs to the Astrophysical Journal.
Department/Centre: Division of Physical & Mathematical Sciences > Joint Astronomy Programme
Division of Physical & Mathematical Sciences > Physics
Date Deposited: 01 Dec 2023 04:30
Last Modified: 01 Dec 2023 04:30
URI: https://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/83436

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