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Shock-induced atomisation of a liquid metal droplet

Sharma, S and Chandra, NK and Kumar, A and Basu, S (2023) Shock-induced atomisation of a liquid metal droplet. In: Journal of Fluid Mechanics, 972 .

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2023.705


The present study uses Galinstan as a test fluid to investigate the shock-induced atomisation of a liquid metal droplet in a high-Weber-number regime. Atomisation dynamics is examined for three test environments: oxidizing (Galinstan-air), inert (Galinstan-nitrogen) and conventional fluids (deionised water-air). Due to the readily oxidizing nature of liquid metals, their atomisation in an industrial scale system is generally carried out in inert atmosphere conditions. However, no previous study has considered gas-induced secondary atomisation of liquid metals in inert conditions. Due to experimental challenges associated with molten metals, laboratory scale models are generally tested for conventional fluids like deionised water, liquid fuels, etc. The translation of results obtained from conventional fluid to liquid metal atomisation is rarely explored. Here a direct multiscale spatial and temporal comparison is provided between the atomisation dynamics of conventional fluid and liquid metals under oxidizing and inert conditions. The liquid metal droplet undergoes breakup through the shear-induced entrainment mode for the studied range of Weber number values. The prevailing mechanism is explained based on the relative dominance of droplet deformation and Kelvin-Helmholtz wave formation. The study provides quantitative and qualitative similarities for the three test cases and explains the differences in morphology of fragmenting secondary droplets in the oxidizing test case (Galinstan-air) due to rapid oxidation of the fragmenting ligaments. A phenomenological framework is postulated for predicting the morphology of secondary droplets. The formation of flake-like secondary droplets in the Galinstan air test case is based on the oxidation rate of liquid metals and the properties of the oxide layer formed on the atomizing ligament surface. © The Author(s), 2023. Published by Cambridge University Press.

Item Type: Journal Article
Publication: Journal of Fluid Mechanics
Publisher: Cambridge University Press
Additional Information: The copyright for this article belongs to the Authors.
Keywords: Air; Atomization; Drop breakup; Morphology, Condition; Deionised waters; Galinstan; Liquid metal droplets; Secondary droplets; Shock induced; Test case; Test Environment; Test fluids; Weber numbers, Liquid metals, comparative study; droplet; entrainment; experimental study; laboratory method; metal; oxidation; spatiotemporal analysis
Department/Centre: Division of Interdisciplinary Sciences > Interdisciplinary Centre for Energy Research
Division of Mechanical Sciences > Mechanical Engineering
Date Deposited: 14 Dec 2023 04:30
Last Modified: 14 Dec 2023 04:30
URI: https://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/83407

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