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Multi-bit quantum random number generator from path-entangled single photons

Shafi, KM and Chawla, P and Hegde, AS and Gayatri, RS and Padhye, A and Chandrashekar, CM (2023) Multi-bit quantum random number generator from path-entangled single photons. In: EPJ Quantum Technology, 10 (1).

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1140/epjqt/s40507-023-00200-2


Measurement outcomes on quantum systems exhibit inherent randomness and are fundamentally nondeterministic. This has enabled quantum physics to set new standards for the generation of true randomness with significant applications in the fields of cryptography, statistical simulations, and modeling of the nondeterministic behavior in various other fields. In this work, we present a scheme for the generation of multi-bit random numbers using path-entangled single photons. For the experimental demonstration, we generate a path-entangled state using single photons from spontaneous parametric down-conversion (SPDC) and assign a multi-qubit state for them in path basis. One-bit and two-bit random numbers are then generated by measuring entangled states in the path basis. In addition to passing the NIST tests for randomness, we also demonstrate the certification of quantumness and self-certification of quantum random number generator (QRNG) using Clauser, Horne, Shimony and Holt (CHSH) inequality violation. We also record the significantly low autocorrelation coefficient from the raw bits generated and this along with CHSH violation rules out multi-photon events and ensure the protection from photon splitting attack. Distribution of photons along multiple paths resulting in multiple bits from one photon extends the limit on bit generation rate imposed by the detection dead time of the individual detector. Thus, the path-entangled states can generate higher bitrates compared to scheme using entangled photon pair which are limited by the coincidence counts. We demonstrate this by generating a high rate of about 80 Mbps when the single photon detector saturates at around 28 Mcps and still show violation of CHSH inequality. © 2023, Springer-Verlag GmbH Germany, part of Springer Nature.

Item Type: Journal Article
Publication: EPJ Quantum Technology
Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Additional Information: The copyright for this article belongs to the Authors.
Keywords: Electric equipment protection; Elementary particle sources; Particle beams; Quantum cryptography; Quantum entanglement; Quantum optics; Random number generation; Random processes; Statistical Physics, Entangled state; Multi-bits; Quantum physics; Quantum random number generators; Quantum system; Random Numbers; Simulation and modeling; Single photons; Statistic modeling; Statistical simulation, Photons
Department/Centre: Division of Physical & Mathematical Sciences > Instrumentation Appiled Physics
Date Deposited: 12 Dec 2023 03:56
Last Modified: 12 Dec 2023 03:56
URI: https://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/83346

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