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Water, sanitation, and hygiene implications of large-scale recycling of treated municipal wastewater in semi-arid regions

Manisha, M and Verma, K and Ramesh, N and Anirudha, TP and Santrupt, RM and Rao, L (2023) Water, sanitation, and hygiene implications of large-scale recycling of treated municipal wastewater in semi-arid regions. In: Science of the Total Environment, 904 .

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Access to water, sanitation, and hygiene (WaSH) is crucial for national development, as it improves human health and fulfills a fundamental need. This study examines the impact of a large-scale groundwater (GW) recharge scheme using secondary treated wastewater (STW) on WaSH characteristics and identifies the major determinants of improved WaSH charecteristics in drought-hit regions of Kolar district, southern India. The study quantifies improved WaSH practices by comparing WaSH characteristics between impacted areas (influenced by STW) and non-impacted areas (not influenced by STW) of Kolar, using household survey data. Pearson's chi-square and student's t-test are used to verify differences between WaSH characteristics. Furthermore, a composite WaSH score is formulated, and a hierarchical stepwise multiple linear regression model is constructed to identify major determinants of improved WaSH scores. The results show that impacted areas have better WaSH characteristics, including daily water supply by gram panchayat, enhanced toilet uses among all family members, bathing patterns, cloth washing practices, toilet cleaning patterns, and water consumption per capita per day. The maximum and minimum WaSH scores of impacted areas were 17.50 and 6.50, respectively, while those of non-impacted areas were 14 and 4.5. This study finds that improved water availability, quality, and security due to daily water supply at the household level are the major determinants of improved WaSH practices. These results can inform policymakers in designing sanitation and hygiene improvement policies that integrate water recycling projects in drought-hit areas. © 2023 Elsevier B.V.

Item Type: Journal Article
Publication: Science of the Total Environment
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Additional Information: The copyright of this article belongs to Elsevier B.V.
Keywords: Drought; Linear regression; Recharging (underground waters); Sanitation; Washing; Wastewater reclamation; Wastewater treatment; Water conservation; Water recycling, Ground water recharge; Hygiene; Large-scales; Municipal wastewaters; Semi-arid region; Sustainable; Treated wastewater; Wastewater reuse; Water availability; Water sanitation, Water supply
Department/Centre: Division of Mechanical Sciences > Centre for Sustainable Technologies (formerly ASTRA)
Date Deposited: 24 Nov 2023 04:37
Last Modified: 24 Nov 2023 04:37
URI: https://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/83293

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