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Importance of multiple sources of iron for the upper-ocean biogeochemistry over the northern Indian Ocean

Banerjee, P (2023) Importance of multiple sources of iron for the upper-ocean biogeochemistry over the northern Indian Ocean. In: Biogeosciences, 20 (13). pp. 2613-2643.

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.5194/bg-20-2613-2023


Although the northern Indian Ocean (IO) is globally one of the most productive regions and receives dissolved iron (DFe) from multiple sources, there is no comprehensive understanding of how these different sources of DFe can impact upper-ocean biogeochemical dynamics. Using an Earth system model with an ocean biogeochemistry component, this study shows that atmospheric deposition is the most important source of DFe to the upper 100 m of the northern IO, contributing more than 50 of the annual DFe concentration. Sedimentary sources are locally important in the vicinity of the continental shelves and over the southern tropical IO, away from high atmospheric depositions. While atmospheric depositions contribute more than 10 (35 ) to 0�100 m (surface-level) chlorophyll concentrations over large parts of the northern IO, sedimentary sources have a similar contribution to chlorophyll concentrations over the southern tropical IO. Such increases in chlorophyll are primarily driven by an increase in diatom population over most of the northern IO. The regions that are susceptible to chlorophyll enhancement following external DFe additions are where low levels of background DFe and high background nitrate-to-iron values are observed. Analysis of the DFe budget over selected biophysical regimes over the northern IO points to vertical mixing as the most important mechanism for DFe supply, while the importance of advection (horizontal and vertical) varies seasonally. Apart from removal of surface DFe by phytoplankton uptake, the subsurface balance between DFe scavenging and regeneration is crucial in replenishing the DFe pool to be made available to the surface layer by physical processes. © Author(s) 2023.

Item Type: Journal Article
Publication: Biogeosciences
Publisher: Copernicus Publications
Additional Information: The copyright for this article belongs to the Author.
Keywords: advection; atmospheric deposition; biogeochemistry; chlorophyll; continental shelf; diatom; iron; surface layer; upper ocean; vertical mixing, Indian Ocean; Indian Ocean (North)
Department/Centre: Division of Mechanical Sciences > Divecha Centre for Climate Change
Date Deposited: 22 Nov 2023 03:43
Last Modified: 22 Nov 2023 03:43
URI: https://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/83201

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