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On rogue La Niñas, with below-average monsoon rainfall

Gadgil, S and Cane, MA and Francis, PA (2023) On rogue La Niñas, with below-average monsoon rainfall. In: Journal of Earth System Science, 132 (3).

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12040-023-02121-1


Prediction of the seasonal monsoon rainfall over India relies largely on the well-known relationship with El Niño and Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and is possible because reasonably reliable seasonal predictions of ENSO are now available. Usually, the cold phase of ENSO is associated with above-normal monsoon rainfall and the warm phase of ENSO with below-normal rainfall. There are, however, exceptions: years in the cold phase of ENSO with below-normal monsoon rainfall and even drought conditions. We term these exceptional events ‘rogue La Niñas’. Clearly, an explanation of these exceptional cases will improve the predictive skill. Here we show that for the part of the Arabian Sea, east of the upwelling region and north of the equatorial belt (60°–70°E, 10°–23°N), the correlation of outgoing longwave radiation with Indian summer monsoon rainfall is even higher than that with the equatorial central Pacific associated with ENSO. Convection over this region is triggered by ENSO, but is modulated by the underlying sea surface temperature (SST). There is a minimum of SST of about 28.1°C above which the convection over the Arabian Sea is high enough and there are no rogue La Niñas. Furthermore, we show that, in this region, the SST of June–September is related to the SST of April–May. When April–May SST is >29.6°C, June–September mean SST is always >28.1°C and there are no rogue La Niñas; the monsoon rainfall is always normal or above normal as expected with a La Niña. Thus the chance of a rogue La Niña can be predicted from the April–May SST of the Arabian Sea. © 2023, Indian Academy of Sciences.

Item Type: Journal Article
Publication: Journal of Earth System Science
Publisher: Springer
Additional Information: The copyright for this article belongs to Springer.
Keywords: Arabian Sea; El Niño and Southern Oscillation; Indian summer monsoon; La Niña
Department/Centre: Division of Mechanical Sciences > Centre for Atmospheric & Oceanic Sciences
Date Deposited: 26 Jul 2023 07:14
Last Modified: 26 Jul 2023 07:14
URI: https://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/82561

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