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Acoustic effect on the joint quality and process of friction stir lap welding of aluminum to steel

Liu, T and Gao, S and Shen, X and Sun, Z and Shi, L and Kumar, S and Yang, C (2023) Acoustic effect on the joint quality and process of friction stir lap welding of aluminum to steel. In: Materials Today Communications, 35 .

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mtcomm.2023.106184


To gain a high strength-to-weight ratio and economic viability for multiple industrial applications, the Al and steel need to be joined successfully. In the present work, we used conventional friction stir welding (FSW) and ultrasonic vibration enhanced friction stir welding (UVeFSW) techniques to obtain high-strength industrial-grade dissimilar joints of Al and steel. The effects of acoustic energy on the joint quality and welding process were investigated. Macrographs of the joints revealed that ultrasonic vibrations could effectively promote the material flow and increase the mixing degree and width of the Al/steel interface. Steel strips' fragmentation and intermixing with the Al substrate were enhanced under ultrasonic effects. The tool torque, axial force, and spindle power were significantly decreased with ultrasonic vibration. Acoustic assistance was found beneficial to increase the joints’ failure load and change the fracture mechanism. The microhardness of acoustically treated regions was found to be higher compared to its counterparts. The thinning of the brittle intermetallic compounds (IMCs) layer at the interface of the UVeFSW joint was caused by decreased peak temperature during welding. In UVeFSW, when the welding speed was 50 mm/min, the maximum failure load of the joint was obtained under the joint action of the macro interlocks (interface zone), the thinner IMCs layer, and the micro interlocks (laminated structure). When the welding speed was 100 mm/min, the failure load of the joint was improved by 25.8% compared with conventional FSW.

Item Type: Journal Article
Publication: Materials Today Communications
Publisher: Elsevier Ltd
Additional Information: The copyright for this article belongs to Elsevier Ltd.
Keywords: Acoustics; Aluminum alloys; Brittle fracture; Friction; Friction stir welding; High strength steel; Research laboratories; Ultrasonic effects; Ultrasonic testing; Ultrasonic waves; Vibrations (mechanical), Acoustic effects; Failure load; Friction stir lap welding; Friction-stir-welding; High-strength; Intermetallic compound layer; Intermetallics compounds; Joint quality; Ultrasonic-vibration; Welding speed, Intermetallics
Department/Centre: Division of Mechanical Sciences > Mechanical Engineering
Date Deposited: 15 Jun 2023 07:21
Last Modified: 15 Jun 2023 07:21
URI: https://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/81938

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