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Homology Modeling of Antibody Variable Regions: Methods and Applications

Bansia, H and Ramakumar, S (2023) Homology Modeling of Antibody Variable Regions: Methods and Applications. [Book Chapter]

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-1-0716-2974-1_16


Adaptive immunity specifically protects us from antigenic challenges. Antibodies are key effector proteins of adaptive immunity, and they are remarkable in their ability to recognize a virtually limitless number of antigens. Fragment variable (FV), the antigen-binding region of antibodies, can be split into two main components, namely, framework and complementarity determining regions. The framework (FR) consists of light-chain framework (FRL) and heavy-chain framework (FRH). Similarly, the complementarity determining regions (CDRs) comprises of light-chain CDRs 1-3 (CDRs L1-3) and heavy-chain CDRs 1-3 (CDRs H1-3). While FRs are relatively constant in sequence and structure across diverse antibodies, sequence variation in CDRs leading to differential conformations of CDR loops accounts for the distinct antigenic specificities of diverse antibodies. The conserved structural features in FRs and conformity of CDRs to a limited set of standard conformations allow for the accurate prediction of FV models using homology modeling techniques. Antibody structure prediction from its amino acid sequence has numerous important applications including prediction of antibody-antigen interaction interfaces and redesign of therapeutically and biotechnologically useful antibodies with improved affinity. This chapter summarizes the current practices employed in the successful homology modeling of antibody variable regions and the potential applications of the generated homology models. © 2023. Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature.

Item Type: Book Chapter
Publication: Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.)
Publisher: NLM (Medline)
Additional Information: The copyright for this article belongs to Humana Press Inc.
Keywords: antibody, amino acid sequence; antibody combining site; chemistry; complementarity determining region; immunoglobulin variable region; molecular model; protein conformation, Amino Acid Sequence; Antibodies; Binding Sites, Antibody; Complementarity Determining Regions; Immunoglobulin Variable Region; Models, Molecular; Protein Conformation
Department/Centre: Division of Physical & Mathematical Sciences > Physics
Date Deposited: 18 Apr 2023 10:24
Last Modified: 18 Apr 2023 10:24
URI: https://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/81337

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