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Human health risk assessment for fluoride and nitrate contamination in the groundwater: a case study from the east coast of Tamil Nadu and Puducherry, India

Khan, AF and Srinivasamoorthy, K and Prakash, R and Gopinath, S and Saravanan, K and Vinnarasi, F and Babu, C and Rabina, C (2021) Human health risk assessment for fluoride and nitrate contamination in the groundwater: a case study from the east coast of Tamil Nadu and Puducherry, India. In: Environmental Earth Sciences, 80 (21).

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1007/s12665-021-10001-4


Consumption of contaminated groundwater leads to serious health problems and may restrain the socio-economic development of society. The study aims to estimate the groundwater contamination and human health risks induced by fluoride and nitrate along the east coast of Tamil Nadu and Pondicherry, south India. Sixty-six samples were collected from the study site to test the level of groundwater contamination. The pH revealed acidic to alkaline water samples, and chemical analysis suggests excess F‾ and NO3‾ in few sites. The major water types in the area are Ca–Cl, Ca–HCO3, and mixed Ca–Mg–Cl. Rock–water interaction is the vital process influencing water chemistry. Hydrogeochemical processes such as reverse ion exchange, ion exchange, mineral dissolution, and silicate weathering control the concentration of ions. Human interventions are also accountable for the supply of toxic contaminants in the groundwater system. The fluoride and nitrate concentrations reported a maximum of 1.78 and 100.0 mg/L, respectively. Elevated fluoride values were reported from the southern, central, and northwestern parts, whereas nitrate concentration was noted towards the southwestern, central, and northeastern parts of the study area. The non-carcinogenic risks to different age groups such as children, females, and males were estimated by calculating hazard quotient (HQ) and total hazard index (THI). Based on THI, 59.09, 51.52, and 34.85% of the child, female and male populations respectively, are under health risk. The study concludes that child and female categories are more vulnerable to health risks in comparison with males. The study's findings may help to take adequate measurements to control the potential health risk in the future.

Item Type: Journal Article
Publication: Environmental Earth Sciences
Publisher: Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH
Additional Information: The copyright for this article belongs to Springer Science and Business Media Deutschland GmbH.
Keywords: Alkalinity; Chemical analysis; Contamination; Economics; Fluorine compounds; Groundwater; Groundwater pollution; Hazards; Health; Health risks; Ions; Nitrates; Risk assessment; Risk perception; Silicates; Weathering, East coast; Fluoride and nitrate; Groundwater contamination; Hazard indices; Human health risk assessment; Nitrate concentration; Nitrate contamination; Tamil Nadu; Tamil nadu and puducherry; Total hazard index, Ion exchange, alkaline water; alkalinity; chemical analysis; concentration (composition); dissolution; fluoride; groundwater pollution; health risk; human activity; ion exchange; nitrate; public health; risk assessment; silicate; socioeconomic conditions; water-rock interaction, India; Puducherry; Tamil Nadu
Department/Centre: Division of Mechanical Sciences > Civil Engineering
Date Deposited: 21 Feb 2023 04:53
Last Modified: 21 Feb 2023 04:53
URI: https://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/80500

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