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Depression and anxiety during the first and second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in two large, prospective, aging cohorts in rural and urban India

Sundarakumar, JS and Menesgere, AL and Hameed, SKS and Ravindranath, V and Teams, SANSCOG & TLSA Study (2022) Depression and anxiety during the first and second waves of the COVID-19 pandemic in two large, prospective, aging cohorts in rural and urban India. In: Health Science Reports, 5 (6).

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1002/hsr2.901


Introduction: The COVID-19 pandemic resulted in a wide variety of adverse consequences, including disruption of long-term, human research studies globally. Two long-term, prospective, aging cohort studies, namely, Srinivaspura Aging, Neurosenescence and COGnition (SANSCOG) study and Tata Longitudinal Study of Aging (TLSA), conducted in rural and urban India, respectively, had to be suspended during first and second waves of COVID-19. Methods: We conducted telephonic assessments to screen for depression and anxiety in the above two cohorts comprising of adults ≥45 years, during the first wave (2020) and second wave (2021) lockdown periods in India. Further, we included depression assessments data from two additional time periods—pre-COVID (2019) and the “inter-wave” period (between the first and second waves) to compare proportions of depression in these cohorts, during four distinct time periods—(i) pre-COVID, (ii) COVID first wave lockdown, (iii) inter-wave period, and (iv) COVID second wave lockdown (rural: 684, 733, 458, 611 and urban: 317, 297, 204, 305 respectively). Results: During COVID first wave, 28.8% and 5.5% had depression and anxiety, respectively in the rural cohort. Corresponding figures in the urban cohort were 6.5% and 1.7%. During second wave, 28.8% of rural subjects had depression and 3.9% had anxiety, whereas corresponding figures in urban subjects were 13.1% and 0.66%. During the above-mentioned four time periods, proportions of depression were: rural—8.3%, 28.8%, 16.6%, 28.8%; urban—12%, 6.1%, 8.8%, 13.1%. Conclusions: Multi-fold increase in depression among aging, rural Indians during first and second waves, with high depression among subjects ≥65 years and those with comorbidities during the first wave, is concerning. Urgent public health measures are needed to address this added mental health burden and thereby, prevent further potential adverse consequences. © 2022 The Authors. Health Science Reports published by Wiley Periodicals LLC.

Item Type: Journal Article
Publication: Health Science Reports
Publisher: John Wiley and Sons Inc
Additional Information: The copyright for this article belongs to the Author(s).
Keywords: adult; aging; alcohol consumption; anxiety; Article; cohort analysis; coronavirus disease 2019; cross-sectional study; depression; female; Generalized Anxiety Disorder-7; Geriatric Depression Scale; human; human experiment; India; lockdown; male; middle aged; pandemic; prospective study; rural area; tobacco use; urban area
Department/Centre: Autonomous Societies / Centres > Centre for Brain Research
Date Deposited: 13 Jan 2023 11:00
Last Modified: 13 Jan 2023 11:00
URI: https://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/79141

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