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Burden of neurological disease

Ravindranath, V and Menesgere, AL and Wallin, MT (2022) Burden of neurological disease. [Book Chapter]

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1016/B978-0-323-85654-6.00019-8


Neurological disorders as a group are the leading cause of disability worldwide, and their contribution to the overall burden from all health conditions is increasing. Aging of the population, population growth, and the shift from communicable to noncommunicable illness are occurring in many countries and regions, and surveillance of the burden of neurological disorders is required to optimize healthcare planning and resource allocation. Disease occurs in patterns that reflect the underlying causes or major risk factors. For example, stroke, dementia, and Parkinson's disease occur primarily in older individuals, whereas multiple sclerosis and primary headache disorders have their onset at earlier ages. Although the reasons for these age-dependent differences are largely unknown, some possibilities include immunological responses that are initially aggressive in early adulthood and wane with time, altered vascular responses to dietary and environmental stimuli, and a breakdown in the clearance of misfolded proteins. Stroke has emerged as a common disorder across the developed and developing worlds as the lifespan increases and lifestyle patterns become similar to those in the United States. Multiple sclerosis has been a geographically spreading disease with its onset in northern Europe, in contrast to primary headache disorders, which appear to be rather homogeneous in their distribution. Thus, genetics, as well as environment including dietary patterns, exposure to pollutants, and infections could potentially be the underlying reason for these disorders. Considering the increasing burden of these disorders, it is necessary for epidemiologists and basic researchers to uncover how environmental influences may be driving the changing patterns seen in disease frequency. Such understanding will be helpful in developing treatment protocols and prevention of neurological disorders. © 2023 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Item Type: Book Chapter
Publication: Neurobiology of Brain Disorders: Biological Basis of Neurological and Psychiatric Disorders, Second Edition
Publisher: Elsevier
Additional Information: The copyright for this article belongs to Elsevier.
Department/Centre: Autonomous Societies / Centres > Centre for Brain Research
Date Deposited: 02 Feb 2023 07:10
Last Modified: 02 Feb 2023 07:10
URI: https://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/78751

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