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Contact-Active Layer-by-Layer Grafted TPU/PDMS Blends as an Antiencrustation and Antibacterial Platform for Next-Generation Urological Biomaterials: Validation in Artificial and Human Urine

Sharma, S and Mandhani, A and Basu, B (2022) Contact-Active Layer-by-Layer Grafted TPU/PDMS Blends as an Antiencrustation and Antibacterial Platform for Next-Generation Urological Biomaterials: Validation in Artificial and Human Urine. In: ACS Biomaterials Science and Engineering .

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1021/acsbiomaterials.2c00455


Urinary tract infections and urinary encrustation impede the long-term clinical performance of urological implants and medical devices. Together, biofilm formation and encrustation constitute serious complications, driving the development of next-generation urological biomaterials. The currently available bioengineered solutions have limited success during long-term usage in the urinary environment. In addressing this unmet clinical challenge, contact-active, antiencrustation surface grafting were conceived onto a dynamically cross-linked polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) modified thermoplastic polyurethane (TPU) blend using the layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly route. To the best of the authors' knowledge, the present study is the first to investigate the LbL grafting in developing an antiencrustation platform. These multilayered assemblies strategically employed covalent cross-linking and electrostatic interaction-assisted progressive depositions of branched polyethyleneimine and poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline). While polyethyleneimine conferred the contact-killing bactericidal activity, the much-coveted antiencrustation properties were rendered by incorporating a partially hydrolyzed derivative of poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline). The performance of the resultant surface-modified TPU/PDMS blends was benchmarked against the conventional urological alloplasts, in a customized lab-scale bioreactor-based dynamic encrustation study and in human urine. After 6 weeks of exposure to an artificial urine medium, simulating urease-positive bacterial infection, the surface-modified blends exhibited a remarkable ability to suppress Ca and Mg encrustation. In addition, these blends also displayed superior grafting stability and antibacterial efficacy against common uropathogens. As high as 4-fold log reduction in the planktonic growth of Gram-negative P. mirabilis and Gram-positive MRSA was recorded with the LbL platform vis-à -vis medical-grade TPU. In conjunction, the in vitro cellular assessment with human keratinocytes (HaCaT) and human embryonic kidney cells (HEK) established the uncompromised cytocompatibility of the multilayered grafted blends. Finally, the physiologically relevant functionality of the LbL grafting has been validated using clinical samples of human urine collected from 129 patients with a broad spectrum of disease conditions. The phase-I pre-clinical study, entailing 6 week-long incubation in human urine, demonstrated significantly improved encrustation resistance of the blends. The collective findings of the present work clearly establish the success of LbL strategies in the development of stable, multifunctional new-generation urological biomaterials. © 2022 American Chemical Society.

Item Type: Journal Article
Publication: ACS Biomaterials Science and Engineering
Publisher: American Chemical Society
Additional Information: The copyright for this article belongs to American Chemical Society.
Keywords: Crosslinking; Grafting (chemical); Polydimethylsiloxane; Silicones, Artificial urines; Branched-polyethyleneimine; Human urine; Layer by layer; Layer-by-layer assemblies; P.mirabilis; Poly(2-ethyl-2-oxazoline); Poly(ethyleneimine); Urinary encrustation, Bioreactors
Department/Centre: Division of Chemical Sciences > Materials Research Centre
Division of Interdisciplinary Sciences > Centre for Biosystems Science and Engineering
Date Deposited: 17 Oct 2022 06:53
Last Modified: 17 Oct 2022 06:53
URI: https://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/77465

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