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Graphene Oxide - A Tool for the Preparation of Chemically Crosslinking Free Alginate-Chitosan-Collagen Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering

Kolanthai, E and Sindu, PA and Khajuria, DK and Veerla, SC and Kuppuswamy, D and Catalani, LH and Mahapatra, DR (2018) Graphene Oxide - A Tool for the Preparation of Chemically Crosslinking Free Alginate-Chitosan-Collagen Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering. In: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, 10 (15). pp. 12441-12452.

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1021/acsami.8b00699


Developing a biodegradable scaffold remains a major challenge in bone tissue engineering. This study was aimed at developing novel alginate-chitosan-collagen (SA-CS-Col)-based composite scaffolds consisting of graphene oxide (GO) to enrich porous structures, elicited by the freeze-drying technique. To characterize porosity, water absorption, and compressive modulus, GO scaffolds (SA-CS-Col-GO) were prepared with and without Ca2+-mediated crosslinking (chemical crosslinking) and analyzed using Raman, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and scanning electron microscopy techniques. The incorporation of GO into the SA-CS-Col matrix increased both crosslinking density as indicated by the reduction of crystalline peaks in the XRD patterns and polyelectrolyte ion complex as confirmed by FTIR. GO scaffolds showed increased mechanical properties which were further increased for chemically crosslinked scaffolds. All scaffolds exhibited interconnected pores of 10-250 μm range. By increasing the crosslinking density with Ca2+, a decrease in the porosity/swelling ratio was observed. Moreover, the SA-CS-Col-GO scaffold with or without chemical crosslinking was more stable as compared to SA-CS or SA-CS-Col scaffolds when placed in aqueous solution. To perform in vitro biochemical studies, mouse osteoblast cells were grown on various scaffolds and evaluated for cell proliferation by using MTT assay and mineralization and differentiation by alizarin red S staining. These measurements showed a significant increase for cells attached to the SA-CS-Col-GO scaffold compared to SA-CS or SA-CS-Col composites. However, chemical crosslinking of SA-CS-Col-GO showed no effect on the osteogenic ability of osteoblasts. These studies indicate the potential use of GO to prepare free SA-CS-Col scaffolds with preserved porous structure with elongated Col fibrils and that these composites, which are biocompatible and stable in a biological medium, could be used for application in engineering bone tissues.

Item Type: Journal Article
Publication: ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces
Publisher: American Chemical Society
Additional Information: The copyright for this article belongs to the American Chemical Society.
Keywords: Alginate; Biocompatibility; Biomechanics; Bone; Cell proliferation; Chemical analysis; Chitosan; Collagen; Crosslinking; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; Graphene; Graphene oxide; Hydrogels; Osteoblasts; Polyelectrolytes; Porosity; Scanning electron microscopy; Solutions; Tissue; Water absorption; X ray diffraction, Biochemical studies; Biodegradable scaffold; Bone tissue engineering; Chemical cross-linking; Cross-linking density; Fourier transform infrared; Interconnected pores; Mouse osteoblast cells, Scaffolds (biology), alginic acid; biomaterial; chitosan; collagen; graphene oxide; graphite, animal; cell proliferation; chemistry; mouse; porosity; tissue engineering; tissue scaffold, Alginic Acid; Animals; Biocompatible Materials; Cell Proliferation; Chitosan; Collagen; Graphite; Mice; Porosity; Tissue Engineering; Tissue Scaffolds
Department/Centre: Division of Mechanical Sciences > Aerospace Engineering(Formerly Aeronautical Engineering)
Date Deposited: 08 Aug 2022 06:45
Last Modified: 08 Aug 2022 06:45
URI: https://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/75581

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