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Evaluation of cytogenotoxic potential and embryotoxicity of KRS-Cauvery River water in zebrafish (Danio rerio)

Anifowoshe, AT and Roy, D and Dutta, S and Nongthomba, U (2022) Evaluation of cytogenotoxic potential and embryotoxicity of KRS-Cauvery River water in zebrafish (Danio rerio). In: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety, 233 .

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.ecoenv.2022.113320


In the Cauvery River (CR), indiscriminate discharge of waste causes unexplained skeletal deformity in some fish species present in the water. To investigate this phenomenon, we analyzed the biological, physical, and chemical parameters present in the water and then evaluated the toxicity effects on the zebrafish (Danio rerio) model. The zebrafish were treated with KRS-CR water samples collected from three stations (fast-flowing water [X], slow-flowing [Y], and stagnant [Z] water), before and after filtration. Firstly, we detected microscopic organisms (MO) such as Cyclops, Daphnia, Spirogyra, Spirochaeta, and total coliform (Escherichia coli), which are bioindicators of water pollution present in the samples. All physicochemical parameters analyzed, including heavy metals before and after filtration of the water with Millipore filter paper (0.45 µm), were within the acceptable limits set by standard organizations, except for decreased dissolved oxygen (DO), and increased biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), and chemical oxygen demand (COD), which are indicators of hypoxic water conditions, as well as the presence of microplastics (polybutene (< 15 µm), polyisobutene (≤ 20 µm), and polymethylpentene (≤3 mm)) and cyclohexyl in CR water samples. Zebrafish embryos treated with the water samples, both before and after filtration exerts the same cytogenotoxic effects by inducing increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, which triggers subcellular organelle dysfunctions, DNA damage, apoptosis, pericardial edema, skeletal deformities, and increased mortality. As a result, we observed that both water samples and zebrafish larvae had significantly less oxygen using SEM and EDS. Our findings show that KRS-CR water can induce cytogenotoxic and embryotoxic defects in zebrafish due to hypoxic water conditions triggered by the microplastics influx. The present study would provide valuable insights for health hazards evaluation and future river water treatment strategies.

Item Type: Journal Article
Publication: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Publisher: Academic Press
Additional Information: The copyright for this article belongs to the Authors.
Keywords: caspase 3; cyclohexyl; dissolved oxygen; heavy metal; microplastic; polybutene; polyisobutene; polymethylpentene; reactive oxygen metabolite; river water; unclassified drug; plastic, bioindicator; chemical pollutant; cyprinid; cytogenetics; embryonic development; oxidative stress; reactive oxygen species; toxicity, adult; animal cell; apoptosis; Article; biochemical oxygen demand; blood sampling; cell organelle; cell viability; chemical analysis; chemical oxygen demand; comet assay; controlled study; cyclopia; Daphnia; DNA damage; ecotoxicology; embryo; embryotoxicity; energy dispersive X ray spectroscopy; environmental exposure; Escherichia coli; genotoxicity; health hazard; heart edema; mitochondrial membrane potential; mortality rate; nonhuman; physical chemistry; Raman spectrometry; scanning electron microscopy; skeleton malformation; Spirochaeta; Spirogyra; water filtration; water flow; water pollution; water sampling; water treatment; zebra fish; animal; nonmammalian embryo; river; water pollutant; zebra fish, Cauvery River; India, Animals; Embryo, Nonmammalian; Microplastics; Plastics; Rivers; Water Pollutants, Chemical; Zebrafish
Department/Centre: Division of Biological Sciences > Molecular Reproduction, Development & Genetics
Date Deposited: 01 Jul 2022 06:01
Last Modified: 01 Jul 2022 06:01
URI: https://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/73756

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