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Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effects of refractory pollutants of untreated and biomethanated distillery effluent using Allium cepa

Kumar, V and Ameen, F and Islam, MA and Agrawal, S and Motghare, A and Dey, A and Shah, MP and Américo-Pinheiro, JHP and Singh, S and Ramamurthy, PC (2022) Evaluation of cytotoxicity and genotoxicity effects of refractory pollutants of untreated and biomethanated distillery effluent using Allium cepa. In: Environmental Pollution, 300 .

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2022.118975


Environmental pollution caused by the discharge of raw and partly treated distillery effluent has become a serious and threatening problem due to its high pollution load. The aim of the present study was to assess the physicochemical load in alcohol distillery effluent before and after biomethanation treatment and the cyto- and genotoxicity effects of refractory pollutants emanated in raw/untreated and biomethanated distillery effluent on the ultrastructural and biochemical responses of Allium cepa root tip cells. Physicochemical analysis revealed high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD: 47840-36651 mg L−1), chemical oxygen demand (COD: 93452-84500 mg L−1) and total dissolved solids (TDS: 64251–74652 mg L−1) in raw and biomethanated effluent along with metal(loid)s (Fe: 456.152–346.26; Zn: 1.654–1.465; Cu: 0.648–0.562; Ni: 1.012–0.951, and Pb: 0.264 mg L−1) which were beyond the safe discharge values prescribed by the environmental regulatory agencies. The UV–Visible and Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometry analyses confirmed the high levels of organic, inorganic, and mixed contaminants discharged in raw and biomethanated distillery effluents. Furthermore, GC–MS analysis characterised chemical contaminants, such as hexadecanoic acid, butanedioic acid, bis(trimethylsilyl) ester; hexadecane, 2,6,11,15-tetramethyl, stigmasterol, and β-sitosterol trimethylsilyl ether that have been reported as androgenic-mutagenic, and endocrine disrupting chemicals by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). The cytotoxicity measured by A. cepa showed dose depended inhibition root growth inhibition and simultaneous reduction in mitotic index in tested effluents. The chromosomal aberrations studies resulted in laggard chromosomes, sticky chromosomes, vagrant chromosomes, chromosome loss, c-mitosis, chromosome bridge, abnormal metaphase, and disturbed anaphase as found in a dose-dependent manner. Furthermore, dose-dependent enhancement in the levels of malondialdehyde, hydrogen peroxide, and antioxidative enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase, ascorbate peroxidase, and catalase were found to be higher in raw effluents treated root cells compared to biomethanated distillery effluent. Analysis of ultrastructural changes in root tip cells by TEM analysis revealed dramatic changes in the morphology of cell organelles and accumulation of metallic elements in and on the surface tissues. The results concluded that the discharged distillery effluents retained certain toxic pollutants which imposed cytotoxic and genotoxic hazards to A. cepa. Thus, for the sake of environmental protection, the raw as well as the disposed biomethanated effluent must be efficiently treated before its dumping into the terrestrial ecosystem.

Item Type: Journal Article
Publication: Environmental Pollution
Publisher: Elsevier Ltd
Additional Information: The copyright for this article belongs to the Elsevier Ltd.
Keywords: Alcohols; Aquatic organisms; Biomarkers; Chromosomes; Cytotoxicity; Effluent treatment; Effluents; Endocrine disrupters; Environmental Protection Agency; Esters; Feedstocks; Metabolism; Organic chemicals; Palmitic acid; Pollution, Allium cepa; Distillery effluents; Endocrine disrupting chemicals; Environmental pollutions; Genotoxicities; Mixed contaminant; Organometallic pollutant; Pollution loads; Root-tip cells; Spend wash, Heavy metals, 2,6,11,15 tetramethyl; alcohol; ascorbate peroxidase; beta sitosterol trimethylsilyl ether; bis(trimethylsilyl)ester; catalase; hexadecane; hydrogen peroxide; iron; lead; malonaldehyde; nickel; palmitic acid; stigmasterol; succinic acid; superoxide dismutase; unclassified drug; zinc, cytology; effluent; endocrine disruptor; heavy metal; organometallic compound; toxicity; transmission electron microscopy, anaphase; androgenesis; Article; biochemical analysis; biochemical oxygen demand; cell mediated cytotoxicity; cell organelle; cell ultrastructure; chemical oxygen demand; chromosome; chromosome aberration; contamination; controlled study; distillery wastewater; dose response; environmental management; environmental protection; Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy; gas chromatography; genotoxicity; governmental organization; growth inhibition; mass spectrometry; metallation; metaphase; methanogenesis; mitosis; mitosis index; mutagenesis; nonhuman; onion; physical chemistry; pollutant; structure analysis; surface analysis; terrestrial species; transmission electron microscopy; ultraviolet visible spectroscopy; United States; DNA damage; ecosystem; onion; water pollutant, Biological Oxygen Demand Analysis; DNA Damage; Ecosystem; Environmental Pollutants; Onions; Water Pollutants, Chemical
Department/Centre: Division of Interdisciplinary Sciences > Interdisciplinary Centre for Water Research
Date Deposited: 24 Jun 2022 11:30
Last Modified: 24 Jun 2022 11:30
URI: https://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/73665

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