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Biomaterials assisted reconstructive urology: The pursuit of an implantable bioengineered neo-urinary bladder

Sharma, S and Basu, B (2022) Biomaterials assisted reconstructive urology: The pursuit of an implantable bioengineered neo-urinary bladder. In: Biomaterials, 281 .

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biomaterials.2021.121331


Urinary bladder is a dynamic organ performing complex physiological activities. Together with ureters and urethra, it forms the lower urinary tract that facilitates urine collection, low-pressure storage, and volitional voiding. However, pathological disorders are often liable to cause irreversible damage and compromise the normal functionality of the bladder, necessitating surgical intervention for a reconstructive procedure. Non-urinary autologous grafts, primarily derived from gastrointestinal tract, have long been the gold standard in clinics to augment or to replace the diseased bladder tissue. Unfortunately, such treatment strategy is commonly associated with several clinical complications. In absence of an optimal autologous therapy, a biomaterial based bioengineered platform is an attractive prospect revolutionizing the modern urology. Predictably, extensive investigative research has been carried out in pursuit of better urological biomaterials, that overcome the limitations of conventional gastrointestinal graft. Against the above backdrop, this review aims to provide a comprehensive and one-stop update on different biomaterial-based strategies that have been proposed and explored over the past 60 years to restore the dynamic function of the otherwise dysfunctional bladder tissue. Broadly, two unique perspectives of bladder tissue engineering and total alloplastic bladder replacement are critically discussed in terms of their status and progress. While the former is pivoted on scaffold mediated regenerative medicine; in contrast, the latter is directed towards the development of a biostable bladder prosthesis. Together, these routes share a common aspiration of designing and creating a functional equivalent of the bladder wall, albeit, using fundamentally different aspects of biocompatibility and clinical needs. Therefore, an attempt has been made to systematically analyze and summarize the evolution of various classes as well as generations of polymeric biomaterials in urology. Considerable emphasis has been laid on explaining the bioengineering methodologies, pre-clinical and clinical outcomes. Some of the unaddressed challenges, including vascularization, innervation, hollow 3D prototype fabrication and urinary encrustation, have been highlighted that currently delay the successful commercial translation. More importantly, the rapidly evolving and expanding concepts of bioelectronic medicine are discussed to inspire future research efforts towards the further advancement of the field. At the closure, crucial insights are provided to forge the biomaterial assisted reconstruction as a long-term therapeutic strategy in urological practice for patients� care. © 2021

Item Type: Journal Article
Publication: Biomaterials
Publisher: Elsevier Ltd
Additional Information: The copyright for this article belongs to Elsevier Ltd
Keywords: Biocompatibility; Biomimetics; Functional polymers; Tissue; Tissue engineering, Alloplastic bladder model; Bioelectronic bladder; Biomimetic strategy; Bladder tissue; Bladder tissue engineering; Dynamic organs; Lower urinary tract; Physiological activity; Reconstructive urology; Urinary bladder, Urology
Department/Centre: Division of Chemical Sciences > Materials Research Centre
Division of Interdisciplinary Sciences > Centre for Biosystems Science and Engineering
Date Deposited: 24 Jan 2022 06:10
Last Modified: 24 Jan 2022 06:10
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/71019

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