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Nano-engineered tools in the diagnosis, therapeutics, prevention, and mitigation of SARS-CoV-2

Kamat, S and Kumari, M and Jayabaskaran, C (2021) Nano-engineered tools in the diagnosis, therapeutics, prevention, and mitigation of SARS-CoV-2. In: Journal of Controlled Release, 338 . pp. 813-836.

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jconrel.2021.08.046


The recent outbreak of SARS-CoV-2 has forever altered mankind resulting in the COVID-19 pandemic. This respiratory virus further manifests into vital organ damage, resulting in severe post COVID-19 complications. Nanotechnology has been moonlighting in the scientific community to combat several severe diseases. This review highlights the triune of the nano-toolbox in the areas of diagnostics, therapeutics, prevention, and mitigation of SARS-CoV-2. Nanogold test kits have already been on the frontline of rapid detection. Breath tests, magnetic nanoparticle-based nucleic acid detectors, and the use of Raman Spectroscopy present myriads of possibilities in developing point of care biosensors, which will ensure sensitive, affordable, and accessiblemass surveillance. Most of the therapeutics are trying to focus on blocking the viral entry into the cell and fighting with cytokine storm, using nano-enabled drug delivery platforms. Nanobodies and mRNA nanotechnology with lipid nanoparticles (LNPs) as vaccines against S and N protein have regained importance. All the vaccines coming with promising phase 3 clinical trials have used nano-delivery systems for delivery of vaccine-cargo, which are currently administered widely in many countries. The use of chemically diverse metal, carbon and polymeric nanoparticles, nanocages and nanobubbles demonstrate opportunities to develop anti-viral nanomedicine. In order to prevent and mitigate the viral spread, high-performance charged nanofiber filters, spray coating of nanomaterials on surfaces, novel materials for PPE kits and facemasks have been developed that accomplish over 90 capture of airborne SARS-CoV-2. Nano polymer-based disinfectants are being tested to make smart-transport for human activities. Despite the promises of this toolbox, challenges in terms of reproducibility, specificity, efficacy and emergence of new SARS-CoV-2 variants are yet to overcome. © 2021 Elsevier B.V.

Item Type: Journal Article
Publication: Journal of Controlled Release
Publisher: Elsevier B.V.
Additional Information: The copyright for this article belongs to Authors
Keywords: Biosensors; Controlled drug delivery; Diagnosis; Diseases; Medical nanotechnology; Metal nanoparticles; Nanomagnetics; Nucleic acids; Storms; Targeted drug delivery; Vaccines; Viruses, Breath tests; Cytokine storm; Cytokines; Frontline; Nano-gold; Post-COVID complication; Rapid detection; Scientific community; Test kits; Vaccine and therapeutic, SARS
Department/Centre: Division of Biological Sciences > Biochemistry
Date Deposited: 03 Dec 2021 08:37
Last Modified: 03 Dec 2021 08:37
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/70242

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