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Nitrates in the environment: A critical review of their distribution, sensing techniques, ecological effects and remediation

Singh, S and Anil, AG and Kumar, V and Kapoor, D and Subramanian, S and Singh, J and Ramamurthy, PC (2022) Nitrates in the environment: A critical review of their distribution, sensing techniques, ecological effects and remediation. In: Chemosphere, 287 .

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2021.131996


Nitrate pollution is eminent in almost all the developing nations as a result of increased natural activities apart from anthropogenic pollution. The release of nitrates in more than critical quantities into the water bodies causes accretion impacts on living creatures, environmental receptors, and human vigour by accumulation through the food chain. Nitrates have recently acquired researchers' huge attention and extend their roots in environmental contamination of surface and groundwater systems. The presence of nitrate in high concentrations in surface and groundwater triggers several health problems, for instance, methemoglobinemia, diabetes, eruption of infectious disorders, harmfully influence aquatic organisms. Sensing nitrate is an alternate option for monitoring the distribution of nitrate in different water bodies. Here we review electrochemical, spectroscopic, and electrical modes of nitrate sensing. It is concluded that, among the various sensors discussed in this review, FET sensors are the most desirable choice. Their sensitivity, ease of use and scope for miniaturisation are exceptional. Advanced functional materials need to be designed to satiate the growing need for environmental monitoring. Different sources of nitrate contamination in ground and surface water can be estimated using different techniques such as nitrate isotopic composition, co contaminants, water tracers, and other specialized techniques. This review intends to explore the research work on remediation of nitrate from wastewater and soil using different processes such as reverse osmosis, chemical denitrification, biological denitrification, ion exchange, electrodialysis, and adsorption. Denitrification proves as a promising alternative over previously reported techniques in terms of their nitrate removal because of its high cost-effectiveness. © 2021 Elsevier Ltd

Item Type: Journal Article
Publication: Chemosphere
Publisher: Elsevier Ltd
Additional Information: The copyright for this article belongs to Elsevier Ltd
Keywords: Aquatic organisms; Contamination; Cost effectiveness; Denitrification; Error detection; Groundwater; Groundwater pollution; Ion exchange; Monitoring; Pollution detection; River pollution; Surface waters, Critical review; Detection; Ecological effect; Ecological remediation; Nitrate pollution; Nitrate pollution source; Nitrate toxicity; Remediation strategies; Sensing techniques; Waterbodies, Nitrates, anthropogenic effect; concentration (composition); groundwater-surface water interaction; literature review; nitrate; pollution monitoring; spatial distribution; wastewater treatment
Department/Centre: Division of Interdisciplinary Sciences > Interdisciplinary Centre for Water Research
Division of Mechanical Sciences > Materials Engineering (formerly Metallurgy)
Date Deposited: 02 Dec 2021 11:51
Last Modified: 02 Dec 2021 11:51
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/70052

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