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The theoretical prediction of the boundary-layer-blockage and external flow choking at moving aircraft in ground effects

Sanal Kumar, VR and Saravanan, V and Srinivasan, V and Ganesh Shankar, S and Mani, S and Sankar, V and Krishnamoorthy, D and Natarajan, D and Mohamed Rafic, SAR and Baskaran, RV and Chandrasekaran, N and Natarajan, V and Sukumaran, A and Doddi, HSN and Padmanabhan, S and Balasubramaniam, G and Saravanan, A and Santhosh Kumar, N and Lenin, C and Mohamed Imran Khan, A and Saravanan, M and Balakrishnan, R and Balachandru, R and Murugesan, M and Venkatesan, DV and Shanjay, KE and Sujith Kumar, H and Abhilash, NA and Aswin Ram, D and Janardhanan, V and Krishnaraj, K and Gunasekaran, S and Karunakaran, S and Vineeshwar, S and Mariappan, A and Kiridharan, R and Sabarinathan, R and Ajith Kumar, M and Pradeep, R and Thianesh, UK and Rajaram Perumal, M and Sumanth Eswar, KS and Rajesh, M (2021) The theoretical prediction of the boundary-layer-blockage and external flow choking at moving aircraft in ground effects. In: Physics of Fluids, 33 (3).

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1063/5.0040440


The theoretical discoveries of the Sanal flow choking V. R. Sanal Kumar et al., "Sanal flow choking: A paradigm shift in computational fluid dynamics code verification and diagnosing detonation and hemorrhage in real-world fluid-flow systems,"Global Challenges 4, 2000012 (2020) and streamtube flow choking V. R. Sanal Kumar et al., "Deflagration to detonation transition in chemical rockets with sudden expansion/divergence regions,"AIAA Paper No. 2020-3520, 2020 achieved significant contemplation in all branches of science and engineering for resolving various unanswered scientific questions brought onward from the beginning of this era V. R. Sanal Kumar et al., "A closed-form analytical model for predicting 3D boundary layer displacement thickness for the validation of viscous flow solvers,"AIP Adv. 8, 025315 (2018). The applications of these flow choking phenomena are more significant in aerospace industries V. R. Sanal Kumar et al., "Nanoscale flow choking and spaceflight effects on cardiovascular risk of astronauts - A new perspective,"AIAA Paper No. 2021-0357, 2021 and medical sciences V. R. Sanal Kumar et al., "Lopsided blood-thinning drug increases the risk of internal flow choking leading to shock wave generation causing asymptomatic cardiovascular disease,"Global Challenges 2021, 2000076. Herein, as an offshoot of the Sanal flow choking phenomena, the proof of the concept of boundary-layer-blockage (BLB) persuaded external-flow-choking (EFC) at aircraft-in-ground (AIG)-effect is presented. When the aircraft's ground clearance is relatively low, the evolving BLB factor from both planes (the bottom surface of the aircraft and the ground) creates a transient fluid-throat, leading to the Sanal flow choking and supersonic flow development in the duct flow region. In this physical situation, the pressure ratio (Ptotal/Pstatic) at the external flow choking region is exclusively a function of the specific heat ratio of the fluid. The EFC is more prone for the low wing aircraft flying in the near vicinity to the ground and/or sea with relatively high subsonic Mach number and low angle of attack. At this flying condition, the underside of the aircraft (fuselage and/or wing) and the ground creates the convergent-divergent duct flow effect leading to the EFC at the critical total-to-static pressure ratio. The accurate estimation of the BLB factor at the location of the EFC at AIG effect is presented in this manuscript as a universal yardstick for two-dimensional (2D) in silico simulation. For establishing the proof of the concept of external flow choking and supersonic flow development and shock wave generation, the 2D in silico results are presented for both stationary and moving airfoils in ground effect. In silico results show that the airfoil at stationary position exhibits relatively higher BLB factor and an immediate occurrence of the EFC than the same airfoil moving with the identical inflow Mach number and Reynolds number. We could establish herein that the moving vehicle simulation is inevitable for capturing actual flow physics and further precise examination of the BLB factor and the possibilities of the occurrence of the EFC for credible trajectory optimization of high-speed ground-effect vehicles. © 2021 Author(s).

Item Type: Journal Article
Publication: Physics of Fluids
Publisher: American Institute of Physics Inc.
Additional Information: The copyright for this article belongs to American Institute of Physics Inc.
Keywords: 3D modeling; Aerospace industry; Air cushion vehicles; Angle of attack; Angle of attack indicators; Boundary layers; Combustion; Computational fluid dynamics; Detonation; Diagnosis; Ducts; Fuselages; Ground effect; Mach number; Manned space flight; Nanofluidics; Reynolds number; Rockets; Shock waves; Specific heat; Supersonic aircraft; Supersonic flow, Cardio-vascular disease; Computational Fluid Dynamics codes; Convergent-divergent duct; Deflagration to detonation transition; Displacement thickness; Science and engineering; Shock wave generation; Trajectory optimization, Wings
Department/Centre: Division of Mechanical Sciences > Aerospace Engineering(Formerly Aeronautical Engineering)
Date Deposited: 29 Mar 2021 07:03
Last Modified: 29 Mar 2021 07:03
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/68590

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