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Electrochemistry of rechargeable batteries beyond lithium-based systems

Kishore, B and Mohanty, SP and Nookala, M (2019) Electrochemistry of rechargeable batteries beyond lithium-based systems. [Book Chapter]

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.1002/9781119510000.ch1


The state-of-art, Li-ion battery is the most preferred system among electrochemical energy conversion devices in recent years. The other battery systems based on Li such as Li-S and Li-O2 are either at commercialization or prototype stage. The specific energy of systems based on Li is the greatest among all known battery systems. However, the global raw material resources of Li are limited (0.007 in earth crust), and they are unevenly distributed on the earth. As a consequence, it is likely that there can be lithium crisis in the future affecting the production of Li-based rechargeable batteries for large scale applications such as electrical vehicles. Rechargeable batteries based on Na, Mg and K are expected to be viable substitutes for Li based batteries. Research activities are in progress on several electrode materials, which provide high specific capacity, cycling stability, long cycle-life, etc. The cathode materials for Na-ion batteries include layered sodium transition metal oxides, sodium transition metal polyanions such as phosphates, pyrophosphates, and fluorophosphates. Among the anodes, the most studied materials are hard carbons, low potential transition metal oxides and phosphates, and alloys of Sn, Sb, Ge, etc. The research activities for K-ion batteries are still in infancy, and K-S and K-O2 have attracted attention in recent years. The cathode materials of interest are Prussian green and Prussian blue. Several other materials analogous to Li and Na based materials may soon pick up as research interest. For the anode materials, carbon and potassium titanates are good contenders. The chapter reviews major advances in Li-based systems, detailed studies on electrode materials for emerging Na- and K-based systems, and also Mg-based rechargeable batteries. © 2020 Scrivener Publishing LLC. All rights reserved.

Item Type: Book Chapter
Publication: Nanomaterials for Electrochemical Energy Storage Devices
Publisher: wiley
Additional Information: The copyright for this article belongs to wiley
Department/Centre: Division of Chemical Sciences > Inorganic & Physical Chemistry
Date Deposited: 23 Mar 2021 10:18
Last Modified: 23 Mar 2021 10:18
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/68562

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