ePrints@IIScePrints@IISc Home | About | Browse | Latest Additions | Advanced Search | Contact | Help

Modeling of Sulfation in a Flooded Lead-Acid Battery and Prediction of its Cycle Life

Gandhi, KS (2020) Modeling of Sulfation in a Flooded Lead-Acid Battery and Prediction of its Cycle Life. In: Journal of the Electrochemical Society, 167 (1).

jou_the_ele_soc_167-01_2020.pdf - Published Version

Download (976kB) | Preview
Official URL: https://dx.doi.org/10.1149/1945-7111/ab679b


A major cause of failure of a lead acid battery (LAB) is sulfation, i.e. accumulation of lead sulfate in the electrodes over repeated recharging cycles. Charging converts lead sulfate formed during discharge into active materials by reduction of Pb2+ ions. If this is controlled by mass transfer of the ions to the electrochemically active area, charging voltage can far exceed the OCV of a charged battery. Then, charge is partly consumed to electrolyse water, and for evolution of hydrogen and oxygen. It causes sulfation since regeneration of active materials will be incomplete. A mathematical model is developed incorporating resistance to mass transfer of Pb2+ ions into the rate of charge transfer reactions, changes in areas of active materials and sulfate particles, and dependence of electrodes' resistance on content of lead sulfate. It was used to show that this mechanism of sulfation does lead to failure of flooded LABs because of increased resistance of electrodes, and to predict cycle life. Capacity fade, and increased cycle life when recharging protocol uses lower DoD are other features of degradation which the model predicts. The model also predicts the observed increase in cycle life when conducting additives are added to the negative electrode.

Item Type: Journal Article
Publication: Journal of the Electrochemical Society
Publisher: Institute of Physics Publishing
Additional Information: The copyright of this article belongs to Institute of Physics Publishing
Keywords: Additives; Charge transfer; Charging (batteries); Electric discharges; Electrodes; Floods; Ions; Lead compounds; Mass transfer; Sulfur compounds, Active material; Capacity fade; Charge-transfer reactions; Charging voltage; Conducting additives; Evolution of hydrogens; Negative electrode; Sulfate particles, Lead acid batteries
Department/Centre: Division of Mechanical Sciences > Chemical Engineering
Date Deposited: 18 Jun 2020 10:54
Last Modified: 18 Jun 2020 10:54
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/65069

Actions (login required)

View Item View Item