Bharathraj, S and Kumaran, V
(2019)
*Cessation of a dense granular flow down an inclined plane.*
In: Physical Review Fluids, 4
(2).

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## Abstract

The cessation of a dense granular flow down an inclined plane upon decrease in the angle of inclination is studied using particle-based simulations for the linear and Hertzian particle contact models for ordered and disordered flows. The nature of the flow is examined by progressively decreasing the angle of inclination by fractions of a degree, with the objective of examining the range of angles for which the hard-particle model can be used to describe the flow and the nature of the flow dynamics very close to cessation where the hard-particle approximation fails. For a disordered flow, when the angle inclination exceeds the angle for flow cessation by about 0.5Â° for the linear contact model and about 1Â° for the Hertzian model, the flow is well described by Bagnold rheology, and the Bagnold coefficients are independent of layer height and the particle stiffness, implying that the flow dynamics is well described by the hard-particle approximation. When the angle of inclination exceeds the angle for flow cessation by less than 0.5Â° for the linear contact model and 1Â° for the Hertzian contact model, the flow transitions into a layered state consisting of a faster shearing zone of height about 30 particle diameters atop a bottom slowly shearing zone. There are sinusoidal oscillations in the velocity of the center of mass of the flow, and the period of these oscillations is proportional to the characteristic time for particle interactions, indicating that the particle contact time does affect the dynamics of the layered flow. The flow evolution is qualitatively different for an ordered flow. In this case, there is an abrupt transition from a Bagnold flow to a plug flow with sliding at the base when the angle of inclination is decreased by 0.05Â°. There is no discernible intermediate flow regime where the particle contact time becomes relevant. We also examine the deceleration of the flow when the angle of inclination is decreased from a flowing state to a final angle below the cessation angle. The initial decrease in the flow velocity is exponential for both contact models and for all final angles of inclination. This is followed by a more rapid decrease to the static state. The time constant for the initial decrease is significantly higher for an ordered flow in comparison to a disordered flow. The time constant is independent of the contact model and particle stiffness, and increases with height proportional to h3/2, as expected for the hard-particle model. Â© 2019 American Physical Society.

Item Type: | Journal Article |
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Publication: | Physical Review Fluids |

Publisher: | American Physical Society |

Additional Information: | Copyright for this article belongs to American Physical Society |

Keywords: | Confined flow; End effectors; Flow velocity; Machinery; Particles (particulate matter); Shearing; Stiffness, Abrupt transition; Characteristic time; Dense granular flows; Hertzian contact model; Intermediate flow; Particle diameters; Particle-based simulation; Sinusoidal oscillations, Granular materials |

Department/Centre: | Division of Mechanical Sciences > Chemical Engineering |

Date Deposited: | 08 Apr 2019 11:29 |

Last Modified: | 08 Apr 2019 11:29 |

URI: | http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/62012 |

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