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GNG Motifs Can Replace a GGG Stretch during G-Quadruplex Formation in a Context Dependent Manner

Das, Kohal and Srivastava, Mrinal and Raghavan, Sathees C (2016) GNG Motifs Can Replace a GGG Stretch during G-Quadruplex Formation in a Context Dependent Manner. In: PLOS ONE, 11 (7).

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0158794


G-quadruplexes are one of the most commonly studied non-B DNA structures. Generally, these structures are formed using a minimum of 4, three guanine tracts, with connecting loops ranging from one to seven. Recent studies have reported deviation from this general convention. One such deviation is the involvement of bulges in the guanine tracts. In this study, guanines along with bulges, also referred to as GNG motifs have been extensively studied using recently reported HOX11 breakpoint fragile region I as a model template. By strategic mutagenesis approach we show that the contribution from continuous G-tracts may be dispensible during G-quadruplex formation when such motifs are flanked by GNGs. Importantly, the positioning and number of GNG/GNGNG can also influence the formation of G-quadruplexes. Further, we assessed three genomic regions from HIF1 alpha, VEGF and SHOX gene for G-quadruplex formation using GNG motifs. We show that HIF1 alpha sequence harbouring GNG motifs can fold into intramolecular G-quadruplex. In contrast, GNG motifs in mutant VEGF sequence could not participate in structure formation, suggesting that the usage of GNG is context dependent. Importantly, we show that when two continuous stretches of guanines are flanked by two independent GNG motifs in a naturally occurring sequence (SHOX), it can fold into an intramolecular G-quadruplex. Finally, we show the specific binding of G-quadruplex binding protein, Nucleolin and G-quadruplex antibody, BG4 to SHOX G-quadruplex. Overall, our study provides novel insights into the role of GNG motifs in G-quadruplex structure formation which may have both physiological and pathological implications.

Item Type: Journal Article
Publication: PLOS ONE
Department/Centre: Division of Biological Sciences > Biochemistry
Date Deposited: 19 Aug 2016 06:43
Last Modified: 19 Aug 2016 06:43
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/54395

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