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Halogen bonds in some dihalogenated phenols: applications to crystal engineering

Mukherjee, Arijit and Desiraju, Gautam R (2014) Halogen bonds in some dihalogenated phenols: applications to crystal engineering. In: IUCRJ, 1 (1). pp. 49-60.

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S2052252513025657


3,4-Dichlorophenol (1) crystallizes in the tetragonal space group I4(1)/a with a short axis of 3.7926 (9) angstrom. The structure is unique in that both type I and type II Cl.....Cl interactions are present, these contact types being distinguished by the angle ranges of the respective C-Cl....Cl angles. The present study shows that these two types of contacts are utterly different. The crystal structures of 4-bromo-3-chlorophenol (2) and 3-bromo-4-chlorophenol (3) have been determined. The crystal structure of (2) is isomorphous to that of (1) with the Br atom in the 4-position participating in a type II interaction. However, the monoclinic P2(1)/c packing of compound (3) is different; while the structure still has O-H....O hydrogen bonds, the tetramer O-H.....O synthon seen in (1) and (2) is not seen. Rather than a type I Br....Br interaction which would have been mandated if (3) were isomorphous to (1) and (2), Br forms a Br....O contact wherein its electrophilic character is clearly evident. Crystal structures of the related compounds 4-chloro-3-iodophenol (4) and 3,5-dibromophenol (5) were also determined. A computational survey of the structural landscape was undertaken for (1), (2) and (3), using a crystal structure prediction protocol in space groups P2(1)/c and I4(1)/a with the COMPASS26 force field. While both tetragonal and monoclinic structures are energetically reasonable for all compounds, the fact that (3) takes the latter structure indicates that Br prefers type II over type I contacts. In order to differentiate further between type I and type II halogen contacts, which being chemically distinct are expected to have different distance fall-off properties, a variable-temperature crystallography study was performed on compounds (1), (2) and (4). Length variations with temperature are greater for type II contacts compared with type I. The type II Br....Br interaction in (2) is stronger than the corresponding type II Cl....Cl interaction in (1), leading to elastic bending of the former upon application of mechanical stress, which contrasts with the plastic deformation of (1). The observation of elastic deformation in (2) is noteworthy; in that it finds an explanation based on the strengths of the respective halogen bonds, it could also be taken as a good starting model for future property design. Cl/Br isostructurality is studied with the Cambridge Structural Database and it is indicated that this isostructurality is based on shape and size similarity of Cl and Br, rather than arising from any chemical resemblance.

Item Type: Journal Article
Publication: IUCRJ
Additional Information: Copy right for this article belongs to the INT UNION CRYSTALLOGRAPHY, 2 ABBEY SQ, CHESTER, CH1 2HU, ENGLAND
Keywords: crystal engineering; crystal structure prediction; elastic deformation; intermolecular interaction
Department/Centre: Division of Chemical Sciences > Solid State & Structural Chemistry Unit
Date Deposited: 31 Jul 2015 14:26
Last Modified: 31 Jul 2015 14:26
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/51981

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