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Azide and Alkyne Terminated Polybutadiene Binders: Synthesis, Cross-linking, and Propellant Studies

Reshmi, S and Arunan, E and Nair, Reghunadhan CP (2014) Azide and Alkyne Terminated Polybutadiene Binders: Synthesis, Cross-linking, and Propellant Studies. In: INDUSTRIAL & ENGINEERING CHEMISTRY RESEARCH, 53 (43). pp. 16612-16620.

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1021/ie502035u


In composite solid propellants, the fuel and oxidizer are held together by a polymer binder. Among the different types of polymeric binders used in solid propellants, hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) is considered as the most versatile. HTPB is conventionally cured using isocyanates to form polyurethanes. However, the incompatibility of isocyanates with energetic oxidizers such as ammonium dinitramide and hydrazinium nitroformate, the short pot life of the propellant slurry, and undesirable side reactions with moisture are limiting factors which adversely affect the mechanical properties of HTPB based propellant. With an aim of resolving these problems, HTPB was chemically transformed to azidoethoxy carbonyl amine terminated polybutadiene and propargyloxy carbonyl amine terminated polybutadiene by adopting appropriate synthesis strategies and characterizing them by spectroscopic and chromatographic techniques. This is the first report on 1,3-dipolar addition reaction involving azide and alkyne end groups for cross-linking HTPB. The blend of these two polymers underwent curing under mild temperature (60 degrees C) conditions through 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition reaction resulting in triazoletriazoline networks. The curing parameters were studied using differential scanning calorimetry. The kinetic parameter, viz., activation energy, was computed to be 107.6 kJ/mol, the preexponential factor was 2.79 x 10(12) s-(1), and the rate constant at 60 degrees C was computed to be 3.64 x 10-(5) s-(1). The cure profile at a given temperature was predicted using the kinetic parameters. Rheological studies revealed that the gel time for curing through the 1,3-dipolar addition is 280 min compared to 120 min for curing through the urethane route. The mechanical properties of the resultant cured polybutadiene network were superior to those of polyurethanes. The cured triazolinetriazole polymer network exhibited biphasic morphology with two glass transitions (T-g) at -56 and 42 degrees C in contrast to the polyurethane which exhibited a single transition at -60 degrees C. This was corroborated by associated morphological changes observed by scanning probe microscopy. The propellant processed using this binder has the advantages of improved pot life as indicated by the end of the mix viscosity which is 165 Pas as compared with 352 Pas for the polyurethane system along with a slow build- up rate. The mechanical properties of the propellant are superior to polyurethane with an improvement of 14% in tensile strength, 22% enhancement in elongation at break, and 12% in modulus.

Item Type: Journal Article
Additional Information: Copyright for this article belongs to the AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 1155 16TH ST, NW, WASHINGTON, DC 20036 USA
Department/Centre: Division of Chemical Sciences > Inorganic & Physical Chemistry
Date Deposited: 14 Dec 2014 10:32
Last Modified: 14 Dec 2014 10:32
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/50436

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