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Aravinda, Subrayashastry and Shamala, Narayanaswamy and Balaram, Padmanabhan (2014) INDUCTION OF FOLDED STRUCTURES IN DESIGNED PEPTIDES USING CONFORMATIONALLY CONSTRAINED RESIDUES. In: Conference on Biomolecular Forms and Functions - A Celebration of 50 Years of the Ramachandran Map, JAN, 2013, Indian Inst Sci, Bangalore, INDIA, pp. 264-281.

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Folding into compact globular structures, with well-defined modules of secondary structure, appears to be a characteristic of long polypeptide chains, with a specific patterning of coded amino acid residues along the length of sequence. Cooperative hydrogen bond driven secondary structure formation and solvent forces, which contribute favorably to the entropy of folding, by promoting compaction of the polymeric chain, have long been discussed as major determinants of the folding process. First principles design approaches, which use non-coded amino acids, employ an alternative structure directing strategy, by using amino acid residues which exhibit a strong conformational bias for specific regions of the Ramachandran map. This overview of ongoing studies in the authors' laboratory, attempts to explore the use of conformationally restricted amino acid residues in the design of peptides with well-defined secondary structures. Short peptides composed of 20 genetically coded amino acids usually exist in solution as an ensemble of equilibrating conformations. Apolar peptide sequences, which are readily soluble in organic solvents like chloroform and methanol, facilitate formation of structures which are predominately driven by intramolecular hydrogen bond formation. The choice of sequences containing residues with a limited range of conformational choices strongly favors formation of local turn structures, stabilized by short range intramolecular hydrogen bonds. Two residue beta-turns can nucleate either helical or hairpin folding, depending on the precise conformation of the turn segment Restriction of the conformational space available to amino acid residues is easily achieved by introduction of an additional alkyl group at the C alpha carbon atom or by side chain backbone cyclization, as in proline. Studies of synthetic sequences incorporating two prototype residues alpha-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib) and D-proline (DPro) illustrate the utility of the strategy in construction of helices and hairpins. Extensions to the design of conformationally switchable sequences and structurally defined hybrid peptides containing backbone homologated residues are also surveyed.

Item Type: Conference Proceedings
Additional Information: Copyright for this article belongs to the WORLD SCIENTIFIC PUBL CO PTE LTD, PO BOX 128 FARRER RD, SINGAPORE 9128, SINGAPORE
Department/Centre: Division of Biological Sciences > Molecular Biophysics Unit
Division of Physical & Mathematical Sciences > Physics
Date Deposited: 17 Jul 2014 08:44
Last Modified: 19 Jul 2014 13:09
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/49488

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