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The influence of debris cover and glacial lakes on the recession of glaciers in Sikkim Himalaya, India

Basnett, Smriti and Kulkarni, Anil V and Bolch, Tobias (2013) The influence of debris cover and glacial lakes on the recession of glaciers in Sikkim Himalaya, India. In: JOURNAL OF GLACIOLOGY, 59 (218). pp. 1035-1046.

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3189/2013JoG12J184


We investigated area changes in glaciers covering an area of similar to 200 km(2) in the Tista basin, Sikkim, Eastern Indian Himalaya, between similar to 1990 and 2010 using Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Indian Remote-sensing Satellite (IRS) images and related the changes to debris cover, supraglacial lakes and moraine-dam lakes. The glaciers lost an area of 3.3 +/- 0.8% between 1989/90 and 2010. More detailed analysis revealed an area loss of 2.00 +/- 0.82, 2.56 +/- 0.61 and 2.28 +/- 2.01 km(2) for the periods 1989-97, 1997-2004/05 and 2004-2009/10, respectively. This indicates an accelerated retreat of glaciers after 1997. On further analysis, we observed (1) the formation and expansion of supraglacial lakes on many debris-covered glaciers and (2) the merging of these lakes over time, leading to the development of large moraine-dam lakes. We also observed that debris-covered glaciers with lakes lose a greater area than debris-covered glaciers without lakes and debris-free glaciers. The climatic data for 24 years (1987-2011), measured at the Gangtok meteorological station (1812 m a.s.l.), showed that the region experienced a 1.0 degrees C rise in the summer minimum temperature and a 2.0 degrees C rise in the winter minimum temperature, indicating hotter summers and warmer winters. There was no significant trend in the total annual precipitation. We find that glacier retreat is caused mainly by a temperature increase and that debris-covered glaciers can retreat at a faster rate than debris-free glaciers, if associated with lakes.

Item Type: Journal Article
Additional Information: Copyright for this article belongs to the INT GLACIOL SOC,ENGLAND
Department/Centre: Division of Mechanical Sciences > Divecha Centre for Climate Change
Date Deposited: 31 Jan 2014 11:52
Last Modified: 03 Feb 2014 05:43
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/48285

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