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On the toughness enhancement in hydroxyapatite-based composites

Kumar, Alok and Biswas, Krishanu and Basu, Bikramjit (2013) On the toughness enhancement in hydroxyapatite-based composites. In: ACTA MATERIALIA, 61 (14). pp. 5198-5215.

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.actamat.2013.05.013


Among various biologically compatible materials, hydroxyapatite (HA) has excellent bioactivity/osteointegration properties and therefore has been extensively investigated for biomedical applications. However, its inferior fracture toughness limits the wider applications of monolithic HA as a load-bearing implant. To this end, HA-based biocomposites have been developed to improve their mechanical properties (toughness and strength) without compromising biocompatibility. Despite significant efforts over last few decades, the toughness of HA-based composites could not be enhanced beyond 1.5-2 MPa m(1/2), even when measured using indentation techniques. In this perspective, the present work demonstrates how spark plasma sintering can be effectively utilized to develop hydroxyapatite titanium (HA-Ti) composites with varying amounts of Ti (5, 10 and 20 wt.%) with extremely high single edge V-notch beam fracture toughness (4-5 MPa m(1/2)) along with a good combination of elastic modulus and flexural strength. Despite predominant retention of HA and Ti, the combination of critical analysis of X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy investigation confirmed the formation of the CaTi4(PO4)(6) phase with nanoscale morphology at the HA/Ti interface and the formation of such a phase has been discussed in reference to possible sintering reactions. The variations in the measured fracture toughness and work of fracture with Ti addition to the HA matrix were further rationalized using the analytical models of crack bridging as well as on the basis of the additional contribution from crack deflection. The present work opens up the opportunity to further enhance the toughness beyond 5 MPa m(1/2) by microstructural designing with the desired combination of toughening phases. (C) 2013 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Item Type: Journal Article
Additional Information: Copyright of this article is belongs PERGAMON-ELSEVIER SCIENCE LTD
Keywords: Composite; HA/Ti; SPS; SEVNB; Fracture toughness
Department/Centre: Division of Chemical Sciences > Materials Research Centre
Date Deposited: 23 Sep 2013 12:11
Last Modified: 23 Sep 2013 12:11
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/47287

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