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A pseudo-time EnKF incorporating shape based reconstruction for diffuse optical tomography

Raveendran, Tara and Gupta, Saurabh and Vasu, Ram Mohan and Roy, Debasish (2012) A pseudo-time EnKF incorporating shape based reconstruction for diffuse optical tomography. In: Medical Physics, 39 (2). pp. 1092-1101.

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Purpose: The authors aim at developing a pseudo-time, sub-optimal stochastic filtering approach based on a derivative free variant of the ensemble Kalman filter (EnKF) for solving the inverse problem of diffuse optical tomography (DOT) while making use of a shape based reconstruction strategy that enables representing a cross section of an inhomogeneous tumor boundary by a general closed curve. Methods: The optical parameter fields to be recovered are approximated via an expansion based on the circular harmonics (CH) (Fourier basis functions) and the EnKF is used to recover the coefficients in the expansion with both simulated and experimentally obtained photon fluence data on phantoms with inhomogeneous inclusions. The process and measurement equations in the pseudo-dynamic EnKF (PD-EnKF) presently yield a parsimonious representation of the filter variables, which consist of only the Fourier coefficients and the constant scalar parameter value within the inclusion. Using fictitious, low-intensity Wiener noise processes in suitably constructed ``measurement'' equations, the filter variables are treated as pseudo-stochastic processes so that their recovery within a stochastic filtering framework is made possible. Results: In our numerical simulations, we have considered both elliptical inclusions (two inhomogeneities) and those with more complex shapes (such as an annular ring and a dumbbell) in 2-D objects which are cross-sections of a cylinder with background absorption and (reduced) scattering coefficient chosen as mu(b)(a)=0.01mm(-1) and mu('b)(s)=1.0mm(-1), respectively. We also assume mu(a) = 0.02 mm(-1) within the inhomogeneity (for the single inhomogeneity case) and mu(a) = 0.02 and 0.03 mm(-1) (for the two inhomogeneities case). The reconstruction results by the PD-EnKF are shown to be consistently superior to those through a deterministic and explicitly regularized Gauss-Newton algorithm. We have also estimated the unknown mu(a) from experimentally gathered fluence data and verified the reconstruction by matching the experimental data with the computed one. Conclusions: The PD-EnKF, which exhibits little sensitivity against variations in the fictitiously introduced noise processes, is also proven to be accurate and robust in recovering a spatial map of the absorption coefficient from DOT data. With the help of shape based representation of the inhomogeneities and an appropriate scaling of the CH expansion coefficients representing the boundary, we have been able to recover inhomogeneities representative of the shape of malignancies in medical diagnostic imaging. (C) 2012 American Association of Physicists in Medicine. [DOI: 10.1118/1.3679855]

Item Type: Journal Article
Publication: Medical Physics
Publisher: American Institute of Physics
Additional Information: Copyright of this article belongs to American Institute of Physics.
Keywords: diffuse optical tomography;near-infrared imaging;pseudo-dynamic ensemble Kalman filter;Gauss-Newton techniques
Department/Centre: Division of Mechanical Sciences > Civil Engineering
Division of Physical & Mathematical Sciences > Instrumentation Appiled Physics
Date Deposited: 20 Apr 2012 12:37
Last Modified: 20 Apr 2012 12:37
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/44354

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