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Implementation of a phase array diffuse optical tomographic imager

Rajan, K and Vijayakumar, V and Biswas, Samir Kumar and Vasu, RM (2008) Implementation of a phase array diffuse optical tomographic imager. In: Review of Scientific Instruments, 79 (8). 084301-084301.

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Diffuse optical tomography (DOT) using near-infrared (NIR) light is a promising tool for noninvasive imaging of deep tissue. This technique is capable of quantitative reconstructions of absorption coefficient inhomogeneities of tissue. The motivation for reconstructing the optical property variation is that it, and, in particular, the absorption coefficient variation, can be used to diagnose different metabolic and disease states of tissue. In DOT, like any other medical imaging modality, the aim is to produce a reconstruction with good spatial resolution and accuracy from noisy measurements. We study the performance of a phase array system for detection of optical inhomogeneities in tissue. The light transport through a tissue is diffusive in nature and can be modeled using diffusion equation if the optical parameters of the inhomogeneity are close to the optical properties of the background. The amplitude cancellation method that uses dual out-of-phase sources (phase array) can detect and locate small objects in turbid medium. The inverse problem is solved using model based iterative image reconstruction. Diffusion equation is solved using finite element method for providing the forward model for photon transport. The solution of the forward problem is used for computing the Jacobian and the simultaneous equation is solved using conjugate gradient search. The simulation studies have been carried out and the results show that a phase array system can resolve inhomogeneities with sizes of 5 mm when the absorption coefficient of the inhomogeneity is twice that of the background tissue. To validate this result, a prototype model for performing a dual-source system has been developed. Experiments are carried out by inserting an inhomogeneity of high optical absorption coefficient in an otherwise homogeneous phantom while keeping the scattering coefficient same. The high frequency (100 MHz) modulated dual out-of-phase laser source light is propagated through the phantom. The interference of these sources creates an amplitude null and a phase shift of 180° along a plane between the two sources with a homogeneous object. A solid resin phantom with inhomogeneities simulating the tumor is used in our experiment. The amplitude and phase changes are found to be disturbed by the presence of the inhomogeneity in the object. The experimental data (amplitude and the phase measured at the detector) are used for reconstruction. The results show that the method is able to detect multiple inhomogeneities with sizes of 4 mm. The localization error for a 5 mm inhomogeneity is found to be approximately 1 mm.

Item Type: Journal Article
Publication: Review of Scientific Instruments
Publisher: American Institute of Physics
Additional Information: Copyright of this article belongs to American Institute of Physics.
Department/Centre: Division of Physical & Mathematical Sciences > Instrumentation Appiled Physics
Division of Physical & Mathematical Sciences > Physics
Date Deposited: 27 Feb 2012 11:33
Last Modified: 27 Feb 2012 11:33
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/42981

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