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Correlations between structure and thermodynamic properties of spinels and their applications in technology

Jacob, KT (1979) Correlations between structure and thermodynamic properties of spinels and their applications in technology. In: Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals, 32 . pp. 470-484.

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Measurements a/the Gibbs' energy enthalpy and entrupy vffarmation oj chromites, vanadites and alumlnat.:s 0/ F", Ni. Co'. Mn, Zn Mg and Cd, using solid oxide galvanic cells over a ternperature range extending approximately lOOO°C, have shown that the '~'Ilir"!,,, J'JrIl/iJ~ tion 0/ cubic 2-3 oxide spinel phases (MX!O,), from component oxide (MO) with rock-salt and X.Os whir c(1f'l/!ldwn st!'llt'lw,·. call b,' represented by a semi-empirical correlalion, ~S~ = --LiS + L'i,SM +~S~:"d(±O.3) cal.deg-1 mol-1 where /',.SM Is the entropy 0/calian mixing oillhe tetrahedral alld octahedral sites o/the spinel and Sr:~ is tlie enfropy associaf,'d Wifh Ih,' randomization a/the lahn-Telier distortions. A review a/the methods/or evaluating the cation distriblltion lfl spille!s suggeJ{j' l/r,l! Ihe most promising scheme is based Oil octahedral site preference energies from the crystal field theory for the Iral1silioll IIIl'f"! IlIIL';. For I/""-Irallsifioll melal cal ions site preference energies are derived relative /0 thol'lt fLI, [ransilion metal ions from measured high tClllP('ftJi ure Cal iUlI disll iiJuriol1 in spine! phases thar contail! one IransilioJl metal and another non-transition metal carion. For 2-3 srinds compulatiorrs b,IS"J Oil i.!c[J;' Temkin mixing on each catioll subialtice predici JistributionJ that are In fair agreement with X-ray and 1I1'IIIrOll ditTraction, /IIdg""!ic dll.! electrical propcrries, and spectroscopic measurements. In 2-4 spineis mixing vI ions do not foliow strictly ideal slllIistli:al Jaws, Th,' OIl/up) associated with the randomizalion 0/the Jllhn-Teller dislOriioll" appear to be significant, only ill spinels witll 3d'. 3d', 3d' (ifld~UI' iOtls in tetrahedral and 3d' and 3d9 ions in octahedral positions. Application 0/this structural model for predicting the thermodynamic proputies ofspinel solid .,olutiofl5 or,' illustrated. F,lr complex systems additional contributions arising from strain fields, redox equilibria and off-center ions have to be qllalllififti. The entropy correlation for spinels provides a method for evaluating structure tran:.jormafiofl entropies in silllple o.\id.-s, ["founlllion on the relative stabilities ofoxides in different crystallCtructures is USe/III for computer ea/culaliof! a/phase dfugrullls ofIlIrer,',,1 III (N.lll1ie5 by method, similar to thost: used by Kaufman and Bernstein for refractory alloy systems. Examples oftechnoiogical appliCation tnclude the predictioll ofdeoxidation equilibria in Fe-Mn-AI-O s),slelll at 1600°C duj ,'Ulllpltfalion 0/phase relutions in Fe-Ni-Cr-S system,

Item Type: Journal Article
Publication: Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals
Publisher: Indian Inst Metals
Department/Centre: Division of Mechanical Sciences > Materials Engineering (formerly Metallurgy)
Date Deposited: 01 Dec 2011 07:22
Last Modified: 01 Dec 2011 07:22
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/42509

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