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Crystal structures of open and closed forms of D-serine deaminase from Salmonella typhimurium - implications on substrate specificity and catalysis

Bharath, Sakshibeedu Rajegowda and Bisht, Shveta and Savithri, Handanhal Subbarao and Murthy, Mattur Ramabhadrashastry Narasimha (2011) Crystal structures of open and closed forms of D-serine deaminase from Salmonella typhimurium - implications on substrate specificity and catalysis. In: FEBS Journal, 278 (16). pp. 2879-2891.

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Metabolism of D-amino acids is of considerable interest due to their key importance in cell structure and function. Salmonella typhimurium D-serine deaminase (StDSD) is a pyridoxal 5' phosphate (PLP) dependent enzyme that catalyses degradation of D-Ser to pyruvate and ammonia. The first crystal structure of D-serine deaminase described here reveals a typical Foldtype II or tryptophan synthase beta subunit fold of PLP-dependent enzymes. Although holoenzyme was used for crystallization of both wild-type StDSD (WtDSD) and selenomethionine labelled StDSD (SeMetDSD), significant electron density was not observed for the cofactor, indicating that the enzyme has a low affinity for the cofactor under crystallization conditions. Interestingly, unexpected conformational differences were observed between the two structures. The WtDSD was in an open conformation while SeMetDSD, crystallized in the presence of isoserine, was in a closed conformation suggesting that the enzyme is likely to undergo conformational changes upon binding of substrate as observed in other Foldtype II PLP-dependent enzymes. Electron density corresponding to a plausible sodium ion was found near the active site of the closed but not in the open state of the enzyme. Examination of the active site and substrate modelling suggests that Thr166 may be involved in abstraction of proton from the C alpha atom of the substrate. Apart from the physiological reaction, StDSD catalyses a, b elimination of D-Thr, D-Allothr and L-Ser to the corresponding alpha-keto acids and ammonia. The structure of StDSD provides a molecular framework necessary for understanding differences in the rate of reaction with these substrates.

Item Type: Journal Article
Publication: FEBS Journal
Publisher: John Wiley and Sons
Additional Information: Copyright of this article belongs to John Wiley and Sons.
Keywords: D-serine deaminase;open and closed conformations;pyridoxal 5 phosphate dependent Foldtype II enzyme;X-ray diffraction; alpha;beta elimination
Department/Centre: Division of Biological Sciences > Biochemistry
Division of Biological Sciences > Molecular Biophysics Unit
Date Deposited: 30 Aug 2011 06:27
Last Modified: 30 Aug 2011 06:27
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/39946

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