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Flow of metal into the flash gap in the last stages of a plane-strain closed-die forging operation

Biswas, SK and Rao, KVJ (1985) Flow of metal into the flash gap in the last stages of a plane-strain closed-die forging operation. In: Journal of Mechanical Working Technology, 11 (3). pp. 319-331.

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In closed-die forging the flash geometry should be such as to ensure that the cavity is completely filled just as the two dies come into contact at the parting plane. If metal is caused to extrude through the flash gap as the dies approach the point of contact — a practice generally resorted to as a means of ensuring complete filling — dies are unnecessarily stressed in a high-stress regime (as the flash is quite thin and possibly cooled by then), which reduces the die life and unnecessarily increases the energy requirement of the operation. It is therefore necessary to carefully determine the dimensions of the flash land and flash thickness — the two parameters, apart from friction at the land, which control the lateral flow. The dimensions should be such that the flow into the longitudinal cavity is controlled throughout the operation, ensuring complete filling just as the dies touch at the parting plane. The design of the flash must be related to the shape and size of the forging cavity as the control of flow has to be exercised throughout the operation: it is possible to do this if the mechanics of how the lateral extrusion into the flash takes place is understood for specific cavity shapes and sizes. The work reported here is part of an ongoing programme investigating flow in closed-die forging. A simple closed shape (no longitudinal flow) which may correspond to the last stages of a real forging operation is analysed using the stress equilibrium approach. Metal from the cavity (flange) flows into the flash by shearing in the cavity in one of the three modes considered here: for a given cavity the mode with the least energy requirement is assumed to be the most realistic. On this basis a map has been developed which, given the depth and width of the cavity as well as the flash thickness, will tell the designer of the most likely mode (of the three modes considered) in which metal in the cavity will shear and then flow into the flash gap. The results of limited set of experiments, reported herein, validate this method of selecting the optimum model of flow into the flash gap.

Item Type: Journal Article
Publication: Journal of Mechanical Working Technology
Publisher: Elsevier Science
Additional Information: The copyright of this article belongs to Elsevier Science.
Department/Centre: Division of Mechanical Sciences > Mechanical Engineering
Date Deposited: 21 Jul 2009 13:25
Last Modified: 19 Sep 2010 05:32
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/20341

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