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Bubble and conical forms of vortex breakdown in swirling jets

Moise, Pradeep and Mathew, Joseph (2019) Bubble and conical forms of vortex breakdown in swirling jets. In: JOURNAL OF FLUID MECHANICS, 873 . pp. 322-357.

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Official URL: https://dx.doi.org/10.1017/jfm.2019.401

Abstract

Experimental investigations of laminar swirling jets had revealed a new form of vortex breakdown, named conical vortex breakdown, in addition to the commonly observed bubble form. The present study explores these breakdown states that develop for the Maxworthy profile (a model of swirling jets) at inflow, from streamwise-invariant initial conditions, with direct numerical simulations. For a constant Reynolds number based on jet radius and a centreline velocity of 200, various flow states were observed as the inflow profile's swirl parameter $S$ (scaled centreline radial derivative of azimuthal velocity) was varied up to 2. At low swirl ( $S=1$ ) a helical mode of azimuthal wavenumber $m=-2$ (co-winding, counter-rotating mode) was observed. A `swelling' appeared at $S=1.38$ , and a steady bubble breakdown at $S=1.4$ . On further increase to $S=1.5$ , a helical, self-excited global mode ( $m=+1$ , counter-winding and co-rotating) was observed, originating in the bubble's wake but with little effect on the bubble itself - a bubble vortex breakdown with a spiral tail. Local and global stability analyses revealed this to arise from a linear instability mechanism, distinct from that for the spiral breakdown which has been studied using Grabowski profile (a model of wing-tip vortices). At still higher swirl ( $S=1.55$ ), a pulsating type of bubble breakdown occurred, followed by conical breakdown at 1.6. The latter consists of a large toroidal vortex confined by a radially expanding conical sheet, and a weaker vortex core downstream. For the highest swirls, the sheet was no longer conical, but curved away from the axis as a wide-open breakdown. The applicability of two classical inviscid theories for vortex breakdown - transition to a conjugate state, and the dominance of negative azimuthal vorticity - was assessed for the conical form. As required by the former, the flow transitioned from a supercritical to subcritical state in the vicinity of the stagnation point. The deviations from the predictions of the latter model were considerable.

Item Type: Journal Article
Additional Information: copyright for this article belongs to CAMBRIDGE UNIV PRESS
Keywords: jets; vortex breakdown
Department/Centre: Division of Mechanical Sciences > Aerospace Engineering(Formerly Aeronautical Engineering)
Depositing User: Id for Latest eprints
Date Deposited: 16 Sep 2019 07:35
Last Modified: 16 Sep 2019 07:35
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/63210

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