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Molecular characterization and morphological description of cryptic haemoproteids in the laughingthrushes (Leiothrichidae) in the western and eastern Himalaya, India version 1; referees: 3 approved

Ishtiaq, F and Rao, M and Palinauskas, V (2018) Molecular characterization and morphological description of cryptic haemoproteids in the laughingthrushes (Leiothrichidae) in the western and eastern Himalaya, India version 1; referees: 3 approved. In: Wellcome Open Research, 3 .

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Abstract

Background: Laughingthrushes (family: Leiothrichidae) consists of diverse and widespread species found in the Indian subcontinent but there is a lack of information on their avian haemosporidians. Methods: We sampled 231 laughingthrushes of 8 species in the western and eastern Himalaya in India. Using parasite morphology and cytochrome b sequences we describe 2 new Haemoproteus species harbored in 3 species of laughingthrushes and report a case of cryptic speciation. Results: First Haemoproteus lineage TROERY01 (GenBank: KY623720) found in Trochalopteron erythrocephalum (27.47) and Trochalopteron variegatum (2.9) in mid to high altitude tropical forests in the western and eastern Himalaya, was described as Haemoproteus (Parahaemoproteus) leiothrichus n. sp. (Haemosporida: Haemoproteidae). Second Haemoproteus lineage TROERY02 (GenBank: KY623721) described as Haemoproteus (Parahaemoproteus) homoleiothrichus n. sp. (Haemosporida: Haemoproteidae) was found in T. erythrocephalum (2.19) and Trochalopteron lineatum (3.84), albeit in low intensity, only in the western Himalaya. Both H. homoleiothrichus n. sp. and H. leiothrichus n. sp. showed no significant difference in morphological features in blood stages. A genetic divergence of 4.4 along with distinct phylogenetic position indicates that these 2 lineages represent cryptic species. Previously, T. erythrocephalum has been described as an additional host for a morphologically described Haemoproteus timalus in the oriental region. Our described species have several morphological features that are absent in H. timalus. These are, the presence of dumbbell-like shaped mature gametocytes, �arm� like extensions of gametocytes and lateral displacement of nuclei of infected erythrocytes. Illustrations of blood stages of the new species are given, and phylogenetic analysis with morphologically described Haemoproteus species identifies parasites closely related to the 2 described parasites. Conclusions: The lineages described here have been recorded only in the laughingthrushes so far. These are the first parasites to be described with T. erythrocephalum as a type host from the western and eastern Himalaya in India. © 2018 Ishtiaq F et al.

Item Type: Journal Article
Additional Information: Copyright for this article belongs to Wellcome Open Research.
Department/Centre: Division of Biological Sciences > Centre for Ecological Sciences
Depositing User: Id for Latest eprints
Date Deposited: 06 May 2019 12:44
Last Modified: 06 May 2019 12:44
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/62127

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