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Cytoplasmic Relocalization and Colocalization with Viroplasms of Host Cell Proteins, and Their Role in Rotavirus Infection

Dhillon, Poonam and Tandra, Varsha N and Chorghade, Sandip G and Namsa, Nima D and Sahoo, Lipika and Rao, C Durga (2018) Cytoplasmic Relocalization and Colocalization with Viroplasms of Host Cell Proteins, and Their Role in Rotavirus Infection. In: JOURNAL OF VIROLOGY, 92 (15).

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Official URL: https://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.00612-18

Abstract

Rotavirus replicates in the cytoplasm of infected cells in unique virusinduced cytoplasmic inclusion bodies called viroplasms (VMs), which are nucleated by two essential viral nonstructural proteins, NSP2 and NSP5. However, the precise composition of the VM, the intracellular localization of host proteins during virus-infection, and their association with VMs or role in rotavirus growth remained largely unexplored. Mass spectrometry analyses revealed the presence of several host heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs), AU-rich element-binding proteins (ARE-BPs), and cytoplasmic proteins from uninfected MA104 cell extracts in the pulldown (PD) complexes of the purified viroplasmic proteins NSP2 and NSP5. Immunoblot analyses of PD complexes from RNase-treated and untreated cell extracts, analyses of coimmunoprecipitation complexes using RNase-treated infected cell lysates, and direct binding assays using purified recombinant proteins further demonstrated that the interactions of the majority of the hnRNPs and ARE-BPs with viroplasmic proteins are RNA independent. Time course immunoblot analysis of the nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions from rotavirus-infected and mock-infected cells and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy analyses of virus-infected cells revealed a surprising sequestration of the majority of the relocalized host proteins in viroplasms. Analyses of ectopic overexpression and small interfering RNA (siRNA)-mediated downregulation of expression revealed that host proteins either promote or inhibit viral protein expression and progeny virus production in virus-infected cells. This study demonstrates that rotavirus induces the cytoplasmic relocalization and sequestration of a large number of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins in viroplasms, subverting essential cellular processes in both compartments to promote rapid virus growth, and reveals that the composition of rotavirus viroplasms is much more complex than is currently understood. IMPORTANCE Rotavirus replicates exclusively in the cytoplasm. Knowledge on the relocalization of nuclear proteins to the cytoplasm or the role(s) of host proteins in rotavirus infection is very limited. In this study, it is demonstrated that rotavirus infection induces the cytoplasmic relocalization of a large number of nuclear RNA-binding proteins (hnRNPs and AU-rich element-binding proteins). Except for a few, most nuclear hnRNPs and ARE-BPs, nuclear transport proteins, and some cytoplasmic proteins directly interact with the viroplasmic proteins NSP2 and NSP5 in an RNA-independent manner and become sequestered in the viroplasms of infected cells. The host proteins differentially affected viral gene expression and virus growth. This study demonstrates that rotavirus induces the relocalization and sequestration of a large number of host proteins in viroplasms, affecting host processes in both compartments and generating conditions conducive for virus growth in the cytoplasm of infected cells.

Item Type: Journal Article
Additional Information: Copyright of this article belong to AMER SOC MICROBIOLOGY, 1752 N ST NW, WASHINGTON, DC 20036-2904 USA
Department/Centre: Division of Biological Sciences > Microbiology & Cell Biology
Depositing User: Id for Latest eprints
Date Deposited: 08 Aug 2018 16:25
Last Modified: 08 Aug 2018 16:25
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/60372

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