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On the Power of Hybrid Networks in Multi-Party Computation

Patra, Arpita and Ravi, Divya (2018) On the Power of Hybrid Networks in Multi-Party Computation. In: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INFORMATION THEORY, 64 (6). pp. 4207-4227.

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Official URL: https://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TIT.2018.2827360

Abstract

Perfectly-secure verifiable secret sharing (VSS) and multi-party computation (MPC) protocols in asynchronous network tolerate only at most one-fourth of corruption, while their counterparts in synchronous network sustain against at most one-third corruption. Moreover property-wise, synchronous protocols provide much stronger guarantees than the asynchronous counterparts. Taking note of the fact that asynchronous network is more realistic on one hand and on the other, synchrony of a network has positive impact on several aspects of distributed protocols including properties and fault-tolerance, we explore the power of hybrid networks that combines best of both the worlds by supporting a few synchronous rounds at the onset of a protocol execution, before turning to asynchronous mode. In hybrid networks, we investigate various feasibility questions pertaining to protocols giving guarantees attainable in synchronous and asynchronous networks. For the asynchronous protocols in hybrid networks, we hope to leverage the initial synchronous rounds to bridge the gap in the fault-tolerance with the synchronous protocols under minimal synchrony assumption. We ask the following fundamental question of both theoretical and practical importance: What is the minimum number of initial synchronous rounds necessary and sufficient in a hybrid network to construct asynchronous perfectly-secure VSS and MPC protocols with the fault-tolerance of synchronous protocols? On the positive note, we show that the answer is one for VSS which is clearly optimal. Notably no broadcast oracle is invoked in the synchronous round of our proposed VSS protocol. On the negative side, we prove that one synchronous round is not enough for MPC, putting MPC on a higher pedestal than VSS in terms of difficulty. For synchronous protocols in hybrid networks, we hope to save on the synchronous rounds leveraging conveniently the available asynchronous phase. We settle the question for VSS in the negative showing that three rounds that are known to be necessary (and sufficient) for VSS in synchronous networks, are also required in hybrid networks. VSS being a special case of MPC, the lower bound holds true for MPC. We match the lower bound with a three-round protocol. Notably, synchronous MPC with cryptographic security is known to be achievable in hybrid networks with one synchronous round.

Item Type: Journal Article
Additional Information: Copy right of this article belong toIEEE-INST ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERS INC, 445 HOES LANE, PISCATAWAY, NJ 08855-4141 USA
Department/Centre: Division of Electrical Sciences > Computer Science & Automation
Depositing User: Id for Latest eprints
Date Deposited: 12 Jun 2018 16:01
Last Modified: 05 Nov 2018 11:42
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/59991

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