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ppb level detection of NO2 using a WO3 thin film-based sensor: material optimization, device fabrication and packaging

Prajapati, Chandra Shekhar and Bhat, Navakanta (2018) ppb level detection of NO2 using a WO3 thin film-based sensor: material optimization, device fabrication and packaging. In: RSC ADVANCES, 8 (12). pp. 6590-6599.

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c7ra13659e

Abstract

In this study, we have investigated the thickness-dependent nitrogen dioxide (NO2) sensing characteristics of a reactive-ion magnetron sputtered tungsten trioxide (WO3) film, followed by morphological and electrical characterizations. Subsequently, the sensing material was integrated with an MEMS platform to develop a sensor chip to integrate with electronics for portable applications. Sputtered films are studied for their sensing performance under different operating conditions to discover the optimum thickness of the film for integrating it with a CMOS platform. The optimized film thickness of similar to 85 nm shows the 16 ppb lower limit of detection and 39 ppb detection precision at the optimum 150 degrees C operating temperature. The film exhibits an extremely high sensor response (R-g - R-a)/R-a x 100 = 26%] to a low (16 ppb) NO2 concentration, which is a comparatively high response reported to date among reactively sputtered films. Moreover, this optimum film has a longer recovery time than others. Thus, an intentional temperature overshoot is made part of the sensing protocol to desorb the NO2 species from the film surface, resulting in full recovery to the baseline without affecting the sensing material properties. Finally, the optimized film was successfully integrated on the sensor platform, which had a chip size of 1 mm(2), with an inbuilt micro-heater. The minimum power consumption of the microheater is similar to 6.6 mW (similar to 150 degrees C), which is practically acceptable. Later, the sensor device was packaged on a Kovar heater for the detailed electrical and sensing characterizations. This study suggests that optimization of the sensing material and optimum operating temperature help to develop a highly sensitive, selective, stable, and portable gas sensor for indoor or outdoor applications.

Item Type: Journal Article
Additional Information: Copy right for the article belong to ROYAL SOC CHEMISTRY, THOMAS GRAHAM HOUSE, SCIENCE PARK, MILTON RD, CAMBRIDGE CB4 0WF, CAMBS, ENGLAND
Department/Centre: Division of Interdisciplinary Research > Centre for Nano Science and Engineering
Depositing User: Id for Latest eprints
Date Deposited: 08 Mar 2018 19:06
Last Modified: 08 Mar 2018 19:06
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/59140

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