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Ionothermal Synthesis of High-Voltage Alluaudite Na2+2xFe2-x(SO4)(3) Sodium Insertion Compound: Structural, Electronic, and Magnetic Insights

Dwibedi, Debasmita and Ling, Chris D and Araujo, Rafael B and Chakraborty, Sudip and Duraisamy, Shanmughasundaram and Munichandraiah, Nookala and Ahuja, Rajeev and Barpanda, Prabeer (2016) Ionothermal Synthesis of High-Voltage Alluaudite Na2+2xFe2-x(SO4)(3) Sodium Insertion Compound: Structural, Electronic, and Magnetic Insights. In: ACS APPLIED MATERIALS & INTERFACES, 8 (11). pp. 6982-6991.

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsami.5b11302

Abstract

Exploring future cathode materials for sodium-ion batteries, alluaudite class of Na2Fe2II(SO4)(3) has been recently unveiled as a 3.8 V positive insertion candidate (Barpanda et al. Nat. Commun. 2014, 5, 4358). It forms an Fe-based polyanionic compound delivering the highest Fe-redox potential along with excellent rate kinetics and reversibility. However, like all known SO4-based insertion materials, its synthesis is cumbersome that warrants careful processing avoiding any aqueous exposure. Here, an alternate low temperature ionothermal synthesis has been described to produce the alluaudite Na2+2xFe2-xII(SO4)(3). It marks the first demonstration of solvothermal synthesis of alluaudite Na2+2xM2-xII(SO4)(3) (M = 3d metals) family of cathodes. Unlike classical solid-state route, this solvothermal route favors sustainable synthesis of homogeneous nanostructured alluaudite products at only 300 degrees C, the lowest temperature value until date. The current work reports the synthetic aspects of pristine and modified ionothermal synthesis of Na2+2xFe2-xII(SO4)(3) having tunable size (300 nm similar to 5 mu m) and morphology. It shows antiferromagnetic ordering below 12 K. A reversible capacity in excess of 80 mAh/g was obtained with good rate kinetics and cycling stability over 50 cycles. Using a synergistic approach combining experimental and ab initio DFT analysis, the structural, magnetic, electronic, and electrochemical properties and the structural limitation to extract full capacity have been described.

Item Type: Journal Article
Additional Information: Copy right for this article belongs to the AMER CHEMICAL SOC, 1155 16TH ST, NW, WASHINGTON, DC 20036 USA
Keywords: sodium-ion battery; alluaudite; Na2Fe2(SO4)(3); ionothermal synthesis; DFT
Department/Centre: Division of Chemical Sciences > Inorganic & Physical Chemistry
Division of Chemical Sciences > Materials Research Centre
Depositing User: Id for Latest eprints
Date Deposited: 29 Apr 2016 04:57
Last Modified: 29 Apr 2016 04:57
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/53718

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