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Simulations of impinging droplets with surfactant-dependent dynamic contact angle

Ganesan, Sashikumaar (2015) Simulations of impinging droplets with surfactant-dependent dynamic contact angle. In: JOURNAL OF COMPUTATIONAL PHYSICS, 301 . pp. 178-200.

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcp.2015.08.026

Abstract

An arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian (ALE) finite element scheme for computations of soluble surfactant droplet impingement on a horizontal surface is presented. The numerical scheme solves the time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations for the fluid flow, scalar convection-diffusion equation for the surfactant transport in the bulk phase, and simultaneously, surface evolution equations for the surfactants on the free surface and on the liquid-solid interface. The effects of surfactants on the flow dynamics are included into the model through the surface tension and surfactant-dependent dynamic contact angle. In particular, the dynamic contact angle (theta(d)) of the droplet is defined as a function of the surfactant concentration at the contact line and the equilibrium contact angle (theta(0)(e)) of the clean surface using the nonlinear equation of state for surface tension. Further, the surface forces are included into the model as surface divergence of the surface stress tensor that allows to incorporate the Marangoni effects without calculating the surface gradient of the surfactant concentration on the free surface. In addition to a mesh convergence study and validation of the numerical results with experiments, the effects of adsorption and desorption surfactant coefficients on the flow dynamics in wetting, partially wetting and non-wetting droplets are studied in detail. It is observed that the effects of surfactants are more in wetting droplets than in the non-wetting droplets. Further, the presence of surfactants at the contact line reduces the equilibrium contact angle further when theta(0)(e) is less than 90 degrees, and increases it further when theta(0)(e) is greater than 90 degrees. Nevertheless, the presence of surfactants has no effect on the contact angle when theta(0)(e) = 90 degrees. The numerical study clearly demonstrates that the surfactant-dependent contact angle has to be considered, in addition to the Marangoni effect, in order to study the flow dynamics and the equilibrium states of surfactant droplet impingement accurately. The proposed numerical scheme guarantees the conservation of fluid mass and of the surfactant mass accurately. (C) 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Item Type: Journal Article
Additional Information: Copy right for this article belongs to the ACADEMIC PRESS INC ELSEVIER SCIENCE, 525 B ST, STE 1900, SAN DIEGO, CA 92101-4495 USA
Keywords: Impinging liquid droplets; Moving contact line; Soluble surfactant; Navier-Stokes equations; Finite-elements; ALE approach
Department/Centre: Division of Interdisciplinary Research > Supercomputer Education & Research Centre
Depositing User: Id for Latest eprints
Date Deposited: 05 Nov 2015 06:39
Last Modified: 05 Nov 2015 06:39
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/52669

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