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Simvastatin Induced Neurite Outgrowth Unveils Role of Cell Surface Cholesterol and Acetyl CoA Carboxylase in SH-SY5Y Cells

Raina, Varshiesh and Gupta, Sarika and Yadav, Saurabh and Surolia, Avadhesha (2013) Simvastatin Induced Neurite Outgrowth Unveils Role of Cell Surface Cholesterol and Acetyl CoA Carboxylase in SH-SY5Y Cells. In: PLOS ONE, 8 (9).

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0074547

Abstract

Statins are known to modulate cell surface cholesterol (CSC) and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in nonneural cells; however no study demonstrates whether CSC and AMPK may regulate simvastatin induced neuritogenesis (SIN). We found that simvastatin (SIM) maintains CSC as shown by Fillipin III staining, Flotillin-2 protein expression / localization and phosphorylation of various receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs) in the plasma membrane. Modulation of CSC revealed that SIN is critically dependent on this CSC. Simultaneously, phospho array for mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs) revealed PI3K / Akt as intracellular pathway which modulates lipid pathway by inhibiting AMPK activation. Though, SIM led to a transient increase in AMPK phosphorylation followed by a sudden decline; the effect was independent of PI3K. Strikingly, AMPK phosphorylation was regulated by protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A) activity which was enhanced upon SIM treatment as evidenced by increase in threonine phosphorylation. Moreover, it was observed that addition of AMP analogue and PP2A inhibitor inhibited SIN. Biocomposition of neurites shows that lipids form a major part of neurites and AMPK is known to regulate lipid metabolism majorly through acetyl CoA carboxylase (ACC). AMPK activity is negative regulator of ACC activity and we found that phosphorylation of ACC started to decrease after 6 hrs which becomes more pronounced at 12 hrs. Addition of ACC inhibitor showed that SIN is dependent on ACC activity. Simultaneously, addition of Fatty acid synthase (FAS) inhibitor confirmed that endogenous lipid pathway is important for SIN. We further investigated SREBP-1 pathway activation which controls ACC and FAS at transcriptional level. However, SIM did not affect SREBP-1 processing and transcription of its target genes likes ACC1 and FAS. In conclusion, this study highlights a distinct role of CSC and ACC in SIN which might have implication in process of neuronal differentiation induced by other agents.

Item Type: Journal Article
Additional Information: Copy right for this article belongs to the PUBLIC LIBRARY SCIENCE, 1160 BATTERY STREET, STE 100, SAN FRANCISCO, CA 94111 USA
Department/Centre: Division of Biological Sciences > Molecular Biophysics Unit
Depositing User: Id for Latest eprints
Date Deposited: 14 Aug 2015 09:44
Last Modified: 14 Aug 2015 09:44
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/52120

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