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Estimate of N2O release from pit-toilets

Rao, Sudhakar M and Malini, R and Priscilla, A and Lydia, A (2015) Estimate of N2O release from pit-toilets. In: ENVIRONMENTAL EARTH SCIENCES, 74 (3). pp. 2157-2166.

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12665-015-4203-3

Abstract

The use of pit-toilets has severely contaminated the groundwater with nitrate ions in Mulbagal town, Karnataka, India. This paper examines the potential of nitrate ions in the pit-toilet effluents to transform to N2O and to escape to atmosphere from 16 wards of Mulbagal town. Anaerobic conditions prevailing in the pit-toilet convert 25 % of the available N to ammonium ions. Only 3-33 % of ammonium ions transform to nitrate ions in the pit-toilet and escape with the effluent. During migration to aquifer, only 4.5 % of available nitrate concentration in the effluent transforms to N-2 and N2O gases in the 1.5-m-thick saturated zone underlying the pit-toilet; 36-55 % of the gases comprise N2O and the remainder of N-2. Further only 18 % of N2O formed escapes to atmosphere, while the remainder is retained in soil solution. Calculations show that 9.88 x 10(13) molecules of N2O/cm(2) would be cumulatively released from 16 wards of Mulbagal town, over an area of 4.9 km(2).

Item Type: Journal Article
Additional Information: Copy right for this article belongs to the SPRINGER, 233 SPRING ST, NEW YORK, NY 10013 USA
Keywords: Denitrification; Nitrate; Nitrous oxide emission; On-site sanitation
Department/Centre: Division of Mechanical Sciences > Centre for Sustainable Technologies (formerly ASTRA)
Division of Mechanical Sciences > Civil Engineering
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Depositing User: Id for Latest eprints
Date Deposited: 11 Aug 2015 06:18
Last Modified: 11 Aug 2015 06:18
URI: http://eprints.iisc.ac.in/id/eprint/52052

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